Avenanthramides (Avns) are polyphenols found exclusively in oats. Consumption of oats has been linked with a decreased risk of several important diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Avns possess an array of bioactivities including anti‑inflammation, antiproliferation, antioxidation, antipruritic, and vasodilator activities. Recently, Avns have been found to be bioavailable in humans and have reported to modulate different signaling pathways associated with cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. We document all updated and relevant literature about the medicinal benefits of Avns. These findings suggest that these polyphenols can be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of several diseases. This review summarizes the updated literature on the Avns and their future prospects in the prevention of various diseases.