A Review Study on Pharmacological Activities, Chemical Constituents and Traditional Uses of Echium amoenum

Pharmacognosy Reviews,2018,12,24,208-213.
Published:October 2018
Type:Review Article
Author(s) affiliations:

Hossein Azizi1, Saloumeh Ghafari1, Roshanak Ghods1,2, Asie Shojaii2,3, Mahboubeh Salmanian1, Jafar Ghafarzadeh1

1Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, 2Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine, 3Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Echium amoenum Fisch. and Mey. (Boraginaceae) is a plant which is used widely in Iranian folk medicine, especially for anxiety and depression. In this study, published scientific reports about the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant were reviewed. The electronic databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Scientific Information Database were searched from 1970 to May 2016 and the data were summarized.Efficacy of E. amoenum (especially petals of E. amoenum) was studied in different in vitro, in vivo, and clinical evaluations. Furthermore, some chemical compounds such as rosmarinic acid, echimidine, and cyanogenic glycosides were isolated from E. amoenum petals. According to the results, E. amoenum showed various biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, analgesic, immunomodulatory, and anxiolytic effects. Clinical studies on E. amoenum showed effectiveness of this plant in depression and anxiety disorders. More clinical trials are recommended for evaluating different beneficial effects of this plant in human models and synthesis of new drugs from the active ingredients of this plant in the future.