Bioactive compounds and establishing their health effects are active areas of scientific queries. There are exciting prospects to facilitate the selection of many bioactive compounds, which are supportive to reduce the risk of many diseases, as well as chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. This review provide an summary of activities of bioactive components like flavones, flavonols, catechins, anthocyanidins (e.g., cyanidin, pelargonidin), and isoflavones (e.g., genistein, daidzein & proanthocyanidins (Polymeric flavonoids), Glucosinolates & isothiocyanates. Such bioactive components impart potential role in enzyme biology (enzyme modulator activities) and in straight line or indirect act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and protection against ultraviolet light induced damages, which affects the health. The number of bioactive compounds and the diversity of likely biological effects, numerous and diverse experimental approaches must be taken to increase our understanding of the biology of bioactive compounds. The discovery of novel health effects of bioactive compounds will provide the scientific basis for future efforts to use biotechnology to modify and make stronger food components as a means to improve public health.