Echium amoenum Fisch. and Mey. (Boraginaceae) is a plant which is used widely in Iranian folk medicine, especially for anxiety and depression. In this study, published scientific reports about the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant were reviewed. The electronic databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Scientific Information Database were searched from 1970 to May 2016 and the data were summarized.Efficacy of E. amoenum (especially petals of E. amoenum) was studied in different in vitro, in vivo, and clinical evaluations. Furthermore, some chemical compounds such as rosmarinic acid, echimidine, and cyanogenic glycosides were isolated from E. amoenum petals. According to the results, E. amoenum showed various biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, analgesic, immunomodulatory, and anxiolytic effects. Clinical studies on E. amoenum showed effectiveness of this plant in depression and anxiety disorders. More clinical trials are recommended for evaluating different beneficial effects of this plant in human models and synthesis of new drugs from the active ingredients of this plant in the future.