Sudan folklore medicine is characterized by a unique combination of Islamic, Arabic, and African cultures. In poor communities, traditional medicine has remained as the most reasonable source of treatment of several diseases and microbial infections. Although the traditional medicine is accepted in Sudan, to date there is no updated review available, which focuses on most effective and frequently used Sudanese medicinal plants. Thus, this review aims to summarize the published information on the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants from Sudan, preparation methods, phytochemistry, and ethnopharmacology. The collected data demonstrate that Sudanese medicinal plants have been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses including different microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders, malaria, diabetes, rheumatic pain, respiratory system disorders, jaundice, urinary system inflammations, wounds, cancer, and different microbial infections. In most cases, the pharmacological studies were in agreement with traditional uses. Moreover, several bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, tannins, fatty acids, and essential oils have been identified as active constituents. Although this review demonstrates the importance of ethnomedicine medicines in the treatment of several diseases in Sudan, further researches to validate the therapeutic uses and safety of these plants through phytochemical screening, different biological activity assays, and toxicological studies are still needed.