The rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance have been used conventionally for the treatment of various ailments, triggering a wide interest from the scientific research community on this ethnomedicinal plant. This review summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the extracts and fractions from A. officinarum, a plant species of the Zingiberaceae family. Different parts of the plant – leaves, roots, rhizomes and aerial parts have been extracted in various solvents methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloromethane, aqueous, chloroform and petroleum ether, using various techniques – Soxhlet extraction, maceration, ultrasonication and soaking, whereas fractionation of the plant extracts involves the solvent–solvent partition method. The extracts, fractions and isolated compounds have been studied for their biological activities antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiproliferative, inhibition of enzymes, as well as the inhibition of nitric oxide production. More findings on A. officinarum are certainly important to further develop potential bioactive drug compounds.