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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: The mechanism of anticancer activities of cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are known to arrest the cell cycle and inhibit the growth of various cancer cell types by downregulation of cyclin-A, cyclin-B1, cyclin-D1, cdc-2, and cdc-25 and through the upregulation of p21 WAF. Cucurbitacins are known to induce apoptosis in several cancer types by inducing p53, p21, caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase and by the decreasing the expression of Bcl-xL. Cucurbitacins are well known for the inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, leading to the inhibition of tumor cell survival or proliferation. Several cucurbitacins disrupt the cytoskeletal components, such as actin, and leading to cell cycle arrest. Cucurbitacins inhibit the activation of Erb2 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 receptors, leading to the inhibition of mTOR/AKT/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways and ultimately affecting the cancer cell survival, proliferation, and the tumor cell progression. Cucurbitacins also inhibit the expression of p-glycoprotein, an efflux pump, leading to the increased sensitivity of several chemotherapeutic agents

Figure 1: The mechanism of anticancer activities of cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are known to arrest the cell cycle and inhibit the growth of various cancer cell types by downregulation of cyclin-A, cyclin-B1, cyclin-D1, cdc-2, and cdc-25 and through the upregulation of p21 WAF. Cucurbitacins are known to induce apoptosis in several cancer types by inducing p53, p21, caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase and by the decreasing the expression of Bcl-xL. Cucurbitacins are well known for the inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, leading to the inhibition of tumor cell survival or proliferation. Several cucurbitacins disrupt the cytoskeletal components, such as actin, and leading to cell cycle arrest. Cucurbitacins inhibit the activation of Erb2 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 receptors, leading to the inhibition of mTOR/AKT/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways and ultimately affecting the cancer cell survival, proliferation, and the tumor cell progression. Cucurbitacins also inhibit the expression of p-glycoprotein, an efflux pump, leading to the increased sensitivity of several chemotherapeutic agents