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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
Jan-Jun 2018
Volume 12 | Issue 23
Page Nos. 1-137

Online since Thursday, May 10, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Effects of substances on plants' active compounds on changes in the hormone levels of the pituitary–thyroid axis in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism p. 1
Elahe Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Sadra Ansaripour, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Shirin Saberianpour
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_48_17  
The roles of thyroid glands in different functions of the body have been well explained such that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can impair the metabolism and normal functions of the body's tissues. Recently, using medicinal plants and their active compounds in treating diseases has attracted attention, and the people's tendency to use these compounds, which are considered to be low risk and to cause no side effect, is increasing. Because changes in the levels of thyroid hormones have considerable effects on body physiology and play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of different diseases, it is necessary to conduct further studies on hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism and also the effects of plants and their compounds on thyroid hormone secretion rates. This review was conducted to present the information on thyroid hormones, as metabolism-regulating agents, and their association with different diseases as well as the effects of plant-based active compounds on changes in the hormone levels of the pituitary–thyroid axis in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Results indicated that disrupted serum levels of the thyroid hormones lead to increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression, menstrual disorders, and kidney disease. The most important effective compounds on these hormones include flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, minerals, essential oil components, such as terpinene, gamma-terpinene, and limonene, and antioxidant compounds that directly influence thyroid and change serum levels of the thyroid hormones through inhibiting thyroid peroxidase. Other mechanisms of change in thyroid hormone levels by plant-based compounds are related to decrease in lipoxygenase activity and increase in the activities of catalase and dismutase. It can therefore be argued that using medicinal plants and their compounds can be a novel and efficient approach to develop drugs for thyroid diseases.
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Phytotherapeutics of polyphenolic-loaded drug delivery systems: A review p. 7
Prasanna Habbu, Mahesh Hiremath, Smita Madagundi, Rashmi Vankudri, Basavraj Patil, Chetan Savant
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_33_17  
Phytopharmaceuticals stand out as recent promising candidates for the treatment of chronic diseases. Nanotechnology has become an important part of pharmaceutical industry, since it involves the development of novel drug delivery systems (nanomedicines) for the benefit of human health. The usefulness of nanotechnology has also been extended to natural products where, number of efforts is made for improvisation of bioavailability and therapeutic potential of polyphenolic compounds. A variety of novel drug delivery systems have been developed for polyphenolic compounds to enhance the relative bioavailability. The developed formulations have also shown sustain or prolonged release properties and also target delivery as evidenced by in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The novel formulations of Quercetin, Green tea catechins, epigallocatechin gallate, Genistein, Resveratrol, Breviscapine and Scutellarin etc. have been prepared by novel techniques and found to increase the therapeutic efficacy against various diseases. The present review focuses on various novel formulations developed for polyphenolic compounds including their therapeutic applications.
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Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction: Fast and green extraction method of secondary metabolites on medicinal plant p. 20
Islamudin Ahmad, Arry Yanuar, Kamarza Mulia, Abdul Mun’im
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_40_17  
Background: Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (IL-MAE) is one of the non-conventional extraction methods that has been developed and applied in recent years. Some studies have reported the success of this approach for extracting the target compound (secondary metabolites) from medicinal plants optimally. Objective: This review paper aimed to provide detail information about the application of the IL-MAE method as a fast and green extraction of a secondary metabolite from the medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: The literature published on IL-MAE was searched and collected using online resources from the electronic databases including Google Scholar, DOAJ, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. Results: This review highlights the role of IL as a green solvent, the basic principles, mechanisms of MAE, and its utilization of natural product extraction. Furthermore, this review explained about the application of the IL-MAE method to extract secondary metabolite (particularly the targeted compound) from a medicinal plant, and a brief extraction mechanism of IL-MAE using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Conclusion: The application of IL-MAE method has successfully performed to extract the targeted secondary metabolite from a natural product, where the extraction process to be rapid, efficient, and green.
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Medicinal plant and their bioactive phytochemicals in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers: A review of clinical trials p. 27
Fatemeh Heydarpour, Masoomeh Abasabadi, Zahra Shahpiri, Siavash Vaziri, Hesam Aldin Nazari, Fariba Najafi, Maryam Mirzaei, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_37_17  
Considering the unclear etiology of recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAUs), the clinical management of RAU is based on no optimal therapeutic approach. The current study aimed to review the clinical trials on the effectiveness of medicinal plants and their active phytochemicals in the treatment of RAU. Five databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library were searched for retrieving all the relevant clinical trials. The results indicate that a wide range of scientific evidence has approved the therapeutic benefits of natural medicaments in the management of RAU, including Satureja khuzistanica, Aloe vera, Myrrh, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Alchemilla vulgaris, Myrtus communis, Melissa officinalis, Rhizophora mangle, Chamomile, Rosa damascena, Nicotiana tabacum, Punica granatum, Ageratina pichinchensis, Norwegian LongoVital, Lavender oil, and Perilla oil that are known anti-aphthous medical plants. Berberine and acemannan are bioactive substances with diverse pharmacological and therapeutic benefits in patients with aphthous, which made them as the promising alternatives for new pharmacological drugs. This review provides evidence that medicinal plants can be considered as future pharmaceutical drugs or adjuvant treatment with conventional therapeutic approaches to improve their efficacy and alleviate the side effects in the management of RAU. Further clinical studies are also necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of plant-derived natural products with potential effects in treating RAU.
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Revisiting bungur (Lagerstroemia speciosa) from Indonesia as an antidiabetic agent, its mode of action, and phylogenetic position p. 40
Agustina Dwi Retno Nurcahyanti, Zita Arieselia, Sandy Vitria Kurniawan, Fitmawati Sofyan, Michael Wink
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_20_17  
Worldwide, the diabetes epidemic is rapidly increasing and has become a growing health threat over the past few decades. The continuous investigation into the development of antidiabetic agents and treatments is crucial because current synthetic antidiabetic drugs cause adverse side effect and are often ineffective. Indonesia is blessed with a mega-biodiversity of medicinal plants. Having an abundance of medicinal plant species has caused several problems, like the adulteration of medicinal plants when used as herbal products, and serious overharvesting resulting in the disappearance of the plants from nature. The DNA barcoding technique is a promising tool to authenticate the identity and phylogenetic position of a medicinal plant. Using DNA barcoding, a close genetic relationship of Bungur from Riau, Sumatra to related taxa from other areas is confirmed; it represents Lagerstroemia speciosa (Lythraceae). Moreover, the active secondary metabolites of Bungur are summarized and most importantly, the mechanism of action as an antidiabetic agent is described. Some of them are well-known principles, and some are known as new mechanisms with the potential to be revisited. This report indicates that L. speciosa may have anti-diabetic properties that might be useful in therapy of diabetes. More research is needed to determine possible side effects, and to identify its relevant chemical components.
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Anticancer prospects of earthworm extracts: A systematic review of In vitro and In vivo studies p. 46
Dominic Augustine, Roopa S Rao, Jayaraman Anbu, KN Chidambara Murthy
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_45_17  
In recent times, naturally occurring substances such as earthworm extracts have been used successfully as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent in wound healing. It has also shown promising antitumor activity in cervical and gastric cancer. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the anticancer potentials of earthworm extracts. Several databases, including PubMed and Google Scholar, were searched from September 2001 to September 2017 using combinations of the following keywords “Earthworm,” “earthworm extract,” and “anti-cancer effect.” Original studies in English describing cytotoxic effects of earthworm extracts on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo were included in the study. We excluded letters to the editor, reviews, and unpublished data, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory studies pertaining to the extracts. There were 23 studies included in the analysis. Eighteen were in vitro studies and 4 studies combined in vitro and in vivo methods. Only one exclusive in vivo study was identified. Eisenia foetida was the most commonly researched earthworm species. Cervical cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma were the most commonly evaluated cancer types. HeLa cervical cancer cell line was the most commonly used model for cytotoxicity testing. Earthworm extracts showed satisfactory anticancer effect on several types of cancers, especially cervical cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of apoptosis of cancer cells should be ascertained and the underlying genes and pathways responsible to be determined. This would help to execute long-term randomized controlled trials to assess the clinical efficacy, optimum dosage, and safety in the future.
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Exploring the mechanisms of cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory property of andrographolide and its derivatives p. 56
Rahul Raghavan, Sanith Cheriyamundath, Joseph Madassery
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_47_17  
This review explores the mechanisms of cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of andrographolide and derivatives of andrographolide in various cell lines. In vitro and in vivo studies that shed light on the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory property of andrographolide and its derivatives are reviewed here. Cytotoxic effect of andrographolide on cancer cell lines are mainly due to the induction of reactive oxygen species, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, inhibition of autophagy, and induction of apoptosis. Anti-inflammatory effect of andrographolide is predominantly due to the covalent inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B transcription factor and thereby inhibition of various targets genes such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and nitric oxide synthase. Andrographolide is known to directly bind Ras protein; therefore, inhibition of growth factor-activated downstream pathways such as ERK1/2 pathway might be due to the direct inhibition of Ras functions. Inhibition of Ras pathway by antagonizing Ras protein might be a key event contributing to both cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory functions of andrographolide. Evidence from literature study showed that derivatives of andrographolide such as neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolides are potent anti-inflammatory agents with less cytotoxicity. Unfavorable chemical modifications such as sulfation and glucuronidation inside the body and fast removal from plasma are the major factors known to hinder the bioavailability of andrographolide.
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Avenanthramides of oats: Medicinal importance and future perspectives p. 66
Vishwas Tripathi, Anjana Singh, Mohd. Tashfeen Ashraf
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_34_17  
Avenanthramides (Avns) are polyphenols found exclusively in oats. Consumption of oats has been linked with a decreased risk of several important diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Avns possess an array of bioactivities including anti-inflammation, antiproliferation, antioxidation, antipruritic, and vasodilator activities. Recently, Avns have been found to be bioavailable in humans and have reported to modulate different signaling pathways associated with cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. We document all updated and relevant literature about the medicinal benefits of Avns. These findings suggest that these polyphenols can be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of several diseases. This review summarizes the updated literature on the Avns and their future prospects in the prevention of various diseases.
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Antimicrobial potential of Tylophora indica and its future considerations in health and food industry p. 72
Charu Khanna, Shalini Singh, Manish Vyas
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_24_17  
One of the most interesting areas in scientific research has been drug discovery. The discovery of antibiotics led to the improvement of the overall health status of the general population, but in the present scenario, its misuse has caused the development of microbial drug resistance. The focus has shifted toward the use of natural drugs as a source of treatment for various ailments to improve the health of individuals. A climber, identified as Tylophora indica, has been in use for a very long time for the treatment of ailments such as asthma and diarrhea. T. indica possesses compounds such as phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids and nonalkaloid components which may be responsible for its biological activity. T. indica is an endangered species, and its genetic preservation is a matter of concern. Literature reports that the different plant parts of T. indica, especially the leaves, possess a wide range of activities against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The experimental observations suggest that the methanolic extracts are more effective as compared to the aqueous extracts. Further studies are needed to explore the potential of T. indica extracts for its antimicrobial activities on various microbial pathogens including bacterial species, protozoal parasites, and viruses. This may further open an investigation into healthy and natural food preservation techniques. The article makes an attempt to review the antimicrobial activities of T. indica, its potential in the food and health sectors, and the future scope with emphasis on overcoming the limitations such as microbial contamination of food and use of synthetic preservatives.
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Effects of Mucuna pruriens (L.) supplementation on experimental models of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review p. 78
Francisca Idalina Neta, Ianara Mendonça Da Costa, Francisca Overlânia Vieira Lima, Luciana Cristina Borges Fernandes, José Rodolfo Lopes De Paiva Cavalcanti, Marco Aurélio De Moura Freire, Eudes Euler De Souza Lucena, Amália Cinthia Meneses Do Rêgo, Irami Araújo Filho, Eduardo Pereira De Azevedo, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_46_17  
Introduction: Mucuna pruriens (L.)DC. (Mp) has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, mainly for delaying the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), and has as its main component levodopa (L-DOPA). The aim of this work is to systematically review the effects of Mp supplementation on experimental models of PD due to its neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. MATERIALS AND Methods: The search was conducted through PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases, where a number of relevant articles were found. Results: Mp demonstrated significant positive responses in the experimental models of PD by improving motor deficits and by enhancing the activity of the antioxidant systems, reducing oxidative stress. In addition, it presented some advantages when compared to a conventional antiparkinsonian drug as it minimized the occurrence and severity of dyskinesias. Conclusion: Thus, considering that the use of herbal medicines decreases the likelihood of side effects associated with the pharmaceutical drugs, this work aims to summarize and evaluate the data available regarding the mechanism of action of Mp and the reported benefits of this plant as an alternative to improve the quality of life of individuals with PD.
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Antimicrobial and anticancer potential of Petiveria alliacea L. (Herb to “Tame the Master”): A review p. 85
João Paulo Bastos Silva, Suellen Carolina Martins do Nascimento, Daniele Hidemi Okabe, Ana Carla Godinho Pinto, Fábio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Thiago Portal da Paixão, Maria Lúcia Souza Siqueira, Ana Cristina Baetas, Marcieni Ataíde de Andrade
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_50_17  
Petiveria alliacea is a perennial Amazonian shrub used in traditional medicine for many purposes worldwide, including as antirheumatic, antispasmodic, antifungal, and analgesic for pain relief. Herein, this review aimed to provide a concise overview of the phytochemistry and antimicrobial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties reported in the literature for P. alliacea. The herb is rich in sulfur-containing compounds that possess a broad-spectrum of in vitro antimicrobial activity against pathogenic fungi and bacteria at low concentrations. P. alliacea also showed cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines through sophisticated machinery of cellular damage in vitro. Other compounds such as flavonoids, terpenoids, and benzenoids are commonly identified in P. alliacea extracts, and they may also justify these activities. Despite the great pharmacological potential, clinical trials are required to ensure its effectiveness and safety. This review may raise new trends on the studies as well as contribute to the community by offering data for decision-making with regard to its use in treating diseases.
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A review: Melia azedarach L. as a potent anticancer drug p. 94
Martha Ervina, Sukardiman
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_41_17  
Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L., Meliaceae), a Mahogany family usually used as high quality timber, is native to Asia but now is found in other parts of tropical world continent. The leaves, fruits, bark, seed and root are use in traditional medicine and it has been shown to various pharmacological activities like antifungal, anti-malarial, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-fertility, anthelmintic, antipyretic and cytotoxic. A review to its phytochemical and anticancer properties of M. azedarach and its sub species or varieties as an effort to analyze the literature on its developing used as anticancer agent. As results of literatures review indicates that fruit, bark, leaves, pulp and seed of Melia azedarach L. showed various in vitro cytotoxic activities in cancer cell lines, such as human colorectal carcinoma (HT-29), breast cancer (MCF-7, SK-BR-3), cervix hepatoma (HepG-2, SMMC-7721 and Hep3B), kidney epithelial cell (MDBK), human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell (A549), non-small cell lung cancer (H460), human lymphoblast lung (U937), human cancer promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60), AZ521 (stomach), human colon cancer (SW480), murine colorectal adenocarcinoma cell (CT26), human oral cancer cell (KB), human prostate cancer (PC3), liver (BEL7404), CNS (SH-SY5Y, U251, SF539), B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line; and showed various in vivo to adenocarsinoma mammary in C3H mice and mouse hepatocellular carcinoma H22 cells to BALB/c mice. Previous results suggested that cytotoxic organic compounds of Melia azedarach L. were supposed of flavonoids, triterpenoids (tirucallane), limonoids (meliarachin, meliatoxin B1, trichilin H, and toosendanin), steroids, and organic acids content compounds.
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PLANT REVIEWS Top

Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Vitex agnus-castus L.: A review p. 103
Mina Cheraghi Niroumand, Fatemeh Heydarpour, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_22_17  
Vitex agnus-castus L., known as the chaste tree, is a small deciduous tree which its fruits have been used for more than 2500 years in ancient Egypt, Greece, Iran, and Rome for a variety of gynecologic problems. It has also been used for its claimed activity in the reduction of libido. The German health authorities have approved the use of V. agnus-castus for menstrual cycle irregularities, premenstrual syndrome, mastalgia, and menopausal disorders. The German Commission E recommended 30–40 mg/day of extract of dried fruit which is standardized based on 0.6% casticin. Scientific studies confirmed several pharmaceutical effects of this medicinal plant including antioxidant, chemopreventive, immunomodulatory and cytotoxicity, tumoricidal, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, insect repellant, larvicidal, fracture healing, osteopenic, antinociceptive, opioidergic, antiepileptic, preventing nonalcoholic fat liver disease and oxidative stress, and anti-inflammatory activities. Adverse effects following by application of this plant are mild and reversible. There are no drug interactions recognized by systematic reviews. Theoretically, chaste tree could interfere with dopaminergic antagonists. In addition, the application of V. agnus-castus is contraindicated (or should be avoided) during pregnancy due to theoretical opinions and cellular studies that exhibited progesteronic and estrogenic properties of the plant. This study provides the documentation for scientists to use the properties of V. agnus-castus as an effective herbal medicine and its safety and acceptable dosage are discussed. Advanced preclinical and clinical investigations for sufficiently assessing the safety and therapeutic efficacy of V. agnus-castus are recommended.
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Neurologic effects of licorice: A review p. 115
Parsa Ravanfar, Golnaz Namazi, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi, Shaghayegh Zafarmand
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_28_17  
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is an herbal medicine with several pharmacologic properties in ancient traditional medicine. Studies have provided evidence on its clinical efficacy in variety of medical conditions. There are evidences implying the neuroprotective role of licorice extract and its pharmacologically active ingredients in acute and chronic neurodegenerative processes. In the present study, we made a thorough search on existing publications on neuroprotective effects of licorice both in molecular/cellular and human/animal in vivo studies. There is strong evidence on both molecular and functional animal/human levels that suggest licorice extract or its pharmacologically active ingredients assert neuroprotective effects in acute and chronic neurologic disorders including ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Licorice extract can be used safely in therapeutic doses for optimizing the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders as well as decreasing the extent of neural tissue damage and neurologic deficits after cerebrovascular accidents.
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Costus speciosus: Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and therapeutic potentials Highly accessed article p. 120
Ali Hafez El-Far, Hazem M Shaheen, Abdel Wahab Alsenosy, Yasser S El-Sayed, Soad K Al Jaouni, Shaker A Mousa
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_29_17  
Medicinal plants are sources of novel drug discovery targets. Costus speciosus is an important medicinal plant widely used for the treatment of various ailments. The plant has multiple active ingredients and has been found to possess many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, steroidogenic, adaptogenic, and antimicrobial effects. This review gives an account of unique studies on C. speciosus phytochemical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies and traditional uses of C. speciosus based on searching the databases of Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Springer Link. The previous studies stated the pharmacological potentials of C. speciosus, but it is still needed for more research efforts concerning molecular basis of its biological activities, especially in vivo models and safety assessment of its different extracts.
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Solanecio biafrae: An underutilized nutraceutically-important african indigenous vegetable p. 128
Oluwakemi Adetutu Bello, Opeyemi Isaac Ayanda, Oluwadurotimi Samuel Aworunse, Babafemi Ibukun Olukanmi, Michael Olasunkanmi Soladoye, Edward Babatunde Esan, Olawole Odun Obembe
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_43_17  
Solanecio biafrae (Olive and Hierne) C. Jeffrey (1986) (Family: Asteraceae), has synonyms Senecio biafrae Olive and Hierne (1877) and Crassocephalum biafrae (Olive and Hierne) S. Moore (1912). It is a perennial standent, underutilized African indigenous medicinal vegetable. It was first reported and published in Flora of Tropical Africa. Its common names varied from Gnanvule in Cote d'Ivoire to Worowo/bologi in Nigeria. It has alternate, simple, succulent, petiolated, and exauriculate leaves. Its propagation is vegetative by rooting of cuttings. However, there is no report on its propagation by seed. It is ubiquitous in cocoa plots in Nigeria, especially southwest; due to deliberate protection for economic revenue, but this has little-uncoordinated cultivation indication. These deliberately protected few are exposed to contamination by a chemical used for protecting cocoa plants. It is highly nutritive and rich in protein. It is also medicinally important as a galactagogue and for treatment of diabetes, high blood pressure, and infertility. It has biological activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It also has traditional and cultural claims for initiation and rituals. Personal interviews and search of the available literature on S. biafrae in electronic peer-reviewed English journals using scientific databases such as Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science was employed.
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SHORT REVIEW Top

Are medicinal plants the future of Loa loa treatment? p. 133
Mengome Line Edwige, Mewono Ludovic, Aboughe-Angone Sophie
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_42_17  
Loa loa filarial worm affects humans living in rural areas, urban slums, or conflict zones. This parasite is responsible for neglected tropical diseases, endemic in rainforest areas of the West and Central African. L. loa has also been diagnosed among travelers and migrants. In areas that are co-endemic of L. loa filarial with other filariasis such as onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, or mansonelliasis, the treatment by diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin increases the risk of severe adverse effects. To remedy to this, it would be interesting to explore other tracks such medicinal plants. Nearly 80% of worldwide seed traditional practitioners are the first choice, and a large number of medicinal plants were claimed to possess antifilarial activities. This review relates about medicinal plants used to treat L. loa filarial disease.
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