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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
Jul-Dec 2018
Volume 12 | Issue 24
Page Nos. 139-255

Online since Friday, October 12, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Plants used for cosmetics in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A case study of skin care p. 139
Idowu Jonas Sagbo, Wilfred Otang Mbeng
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_9_18  
Cosmetology is the science of change of appearance and has been practiced since ancient times. In South Africa, especially Eastern Cape, the concept of using plants for beautification finds its origin in the traditional medicine literature. Moreover, herbal extract as a whole or part thereof has been used since time immemorial for various ailments of the skin, hair, and for overall appearance. Recently, the interest of consumers in the use of herbal cosmetics has been stimulated by the decline of faith in modern cosmetic products based on the beliefs that herbal cosmetics contain natural ingredients that are less dangerous to the skin and thereby superior to synthetic cosmetics and the reference to successful historical use by different cultures. A number of South African plants have been evaluated for their cosmetic potential. In this article, we reviewed 105 plant species used by the people of Eastern Cape Province for various cosmetic purposes with a majority of them used for skin care (70 species) and dental care (6 species). These plants are distributed in 59 families with the Asteraceae being the most represented with 9 species, followed by Fabaceae (7 species), Asphodelaceae (5 species), Lamiaceae (4 species), Apocynaceae (3 species), Hyacinthaceae (3 species), and other families with two to one species each. The results of the studies conducted confirmed the potential of the Eastern Cape medicinal plants in cosmetic products and identified a number of promising species for further investigation as plant-based cosmetic agents.
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The role of cucurbitacins in combating cancers: A mechanistic review p. 157
Abdulrhman Alsayari, Fathi T Halaweish, Narasimman Gurusamy
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_17_18  
Cucurbitacins are highly oxidized tetracyclic triterpenoids from the Cucurbitaceae families. Several cucurbitacins, such as B, D, E, I, R, IIa, and dihydrocucurbitacin B, have been shown to possess antiproliferative and anticancer activities. Mechanistically, cucurbitacins induce cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and induce apoptosis through several mechanisms, such as the production of reactive oxygen species. In addition, they can inhibit the migration and invasion of cancer cells. Consistently, cucurbitacins have been shown to inhibit the Janus kinase-mediated activation of the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription. In addition, other receptor-mediated signaling pathways, such as ErbB, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and integrins, have also been inhibited by the cucurbitacin on cancer cells. Cucurbitacin treatments for various types of cancer have been shown to disrupt the cytoskeletal components such as actin, inhibit the expression of the proto-oncogenic proteins such as c-myc, and induce the expression of tumor suppressor proteins such as p53. Importantly, the synergistic anticancer activities of cucurbitacins have been observed when combined with established chemotherapeutic drugs, such as imatinib mesylate, paclitaxel, docetaxel, and gemcitabine. Cucurbitacins are a promising anticancer agent and can potentiate the effect of current chemotherapy drugs as well as reduce the serious side effects of these drugs.
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Terpenoids as cytotoxic compounds: A perspective p. 166
Ved Prakash
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_3_18  
Natural products serve as safe and effective therapeutic agents for the drug discovery. Plants produce bioactive secondary metabolites such as terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and others, which have profusely been studied for anti-infective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory potential, and metabolic disorders to name a few. Terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural compound. The study investigates the novel cytotoxic compound of the terpenoid family isolated from different natural sources. The anticancerous activities of the compounds discussed in this review are taken from the published articles showing activity against specific cancer cell lines. The compounds exclusively belong to terpenoid family. Considering the huge potential of plant-based natural products in drug discovery program and the contribution of terpenoid in the production of anticancer compounds, it can be exploited for more reliable economical and environmentally safe bioactive molecules.
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Antiviral and therapeutic uses of medicinal plants and their derivatives against dengue viruses p. 177
Sulochana Kaushik, Samander Kaushik, Vikrant Sharma, Jaya Parkash Yadav
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_2_18  
Dengue fever (DF) is occurring worldwide, and it has emerged as a global health threat due to high mortality and morbidity, specifically in tropical and subtropical regions. The World Health Organization has deep concerned to this disease being a large section of population affected. Around 2.5 billion peoples are at risk of dengue virus (DENV). Over 100 countries including Europe and the United states are affected due to DENV. DF is the most widespread viral disease. There are four different serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) of DENV but now discovered DENV-5 serotype also. DENV is transmitted from person to person by the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito. Unfortunately, there are no effective approved anti-dengue agents and vaccine to treat viral infection. Researchers have paid attention toward medicinal plants in search of natural compounds which can be used as anti-dengue. Therefore, our focus is on the extract of medicinal plants which may be more effective, safer, and less toxic than synthetic drugs. In the present review paper, the brief description of 35 medicinal plants which possess anti-dengue activity has been documented along with their active components. This study will be helpful to establish that natural products may have good potential source of new anti-dengue compounds.
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A review on some medicinal plants with hepatoprotective effects p. 186
Kunle Okaiyeto, Uchechukwu U Nwodo, Leonard V Mabinya, Anthony I Okoh
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_52_17  
Liver diseases have become a major global health challenge and may be triggered by several toxic chemicals, which include chemotherapeutic agents, thioacetamide, carbon tetrachloride, certain antibiotics, excessive alcohol consumption, and pathogenic microbes. Hence, safeguarding a healthy liver is vital for good health and well-being. Despite advances in pharmacology, the demerits associated with synthetic drugs have outshone the merits. Treatment of liver diseases based on modern medical principles is becoming ineffective and also associated with adverse effects of long-term use, in addition to prohibitive costs in developing countries. Thus, exploring medicinal plants which are easily available and cheap and do not involve strenuous pharmaceutical production processes appears to have gained worldwide attention as alternative therapeutic agents for the diseases. Consequently, emphasis has been placed on folkloric herbs with high efficacy, low toxicity, and cost-effectiveness. In this paper, literature search was conducted using various databases such as Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, and PubMed; we carried out a comprehensive review on existing information on some medicinal plants around the world with hepatoprotective prospects. Phytochemical compounds with hepatoprotective effects were also discussed, and finally, the future work in the field was also highlighted.
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Use of medicinal plants in the treatment of erysipelas: A review p. 200
Ivanise Brito da Silva, Rafaela Damasceno Sá, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira Macêdo, Karina Perrelli Randau
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_5_18  
Erysipelas infection is caused by Gram-positive bacteria, in particular, β-hemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes streptococci (B, C, and G). Typically treated with benzathine penicillin, the bacterial resistance and entry points in the skin favor disease recurrence. The use of herbs is a widespread traditional practice in the general population as an alternative method for curing diseases and symptoms with subsequent improvement in quality of life. It represents a more affordable treatment for the lower-class population. This article reviews the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of erysipelas. A review was conducted identifying medicinal plants that can be used for the treatment of erysipelas. The search was conducted from publications from 1980 to 2016 by combining the search terms “medicinal plant” and “erysipelas.” The databases used in the research were PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Data from the included articles are summarized in two tables with ethnopharmacological and pharmacological information. In this review, 30 articles were included. The selected plants have different popular indications of use, for example, to combat fever, inflammatory processes, and skin problems. The pharmacological studies evaluate the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, toxicological, immunomodulatory, and antiprotozoal properties of plants using in vitro and in vivo methods. The plants mentioned in this study are reported as viable possibilities for the treatment of erysipelas. Future research may be carried out to elucidate the active principles, mechanisms of action, and pharmacodynamic aspects and thus propose a new treatment.
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A review study on pharmacological activities, chemical constituents, and traditional uses of Echium amoenum p. 208
Hossein Azizi, Saloumeh Ghafari, Roshanak Ghods, Asie Shojaii, Mahboubeh Salmanian, Jafar Ghafarzadeh
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_13_18  
Echium amoenum Fisch. and Mey. (Boraginaceae) is a plant which is used widely in Iranian folk medicine, especially for anxiety and depression. In this study, published scientific reports about the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant were reviewed. The electronic databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Scientific Information Database were searched from 1970 to May 2016 and the data were summarized.Efficacy of E. amoenum (especially petals of E. amoenum) was studied in different in vitro, in vivo, and clinical evaluations. Furthermore, some chemical compounds such as rosmarinic acid, echimidine, and cyanogenic glycosides were isolated from E. amoenum petals. According to the results, E. amoenum showed various biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, analgesic, immunomodulatory, and anxiolytic effects. Clinical studies on E. amoenum showed effectiveness of this plant in depression and anxiety disorders. More clinical trials are recommended for evaluating different beneficial effects of this plant in human models and synthesis of new drugs from the active ingredients of this plant in the future.
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A scientific review on three species of Diospyros p. 214
S N. V. L. Sirisha, Anjana Male, Annam Sai Kiran, I Sundar Raj, Namburi Balasubramanyam Ravi Teja, G Surendra
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_6_18  
Diospyros species plants belong to Ebenaceae family are grown in most tropical areas and helpful for treating many diseases and disorders, which is mostly used by tribal people, but very few scientific evidence is available for approving its folklore uses. Hence, an attempt has been made to collect information regarding three of its genus plants known as Diospyros virginiana, Diospyros kaki, and Diospyros chloroxylon. Cultivational requirements, morphological characters, folklore uses, pharmacological evidence, phytochemical evidence has been discussed. This review will be helpful for plant researchers to proceed further work on these genus plant.
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A comprehensive review on functional properties of fermented rice bran p. 218
Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Periyanaina Kesika, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_11_18  
A predominant by-product of rice processing is rice bran (RB). The phytochemical composition of the RB varied among the cultivars. RB is rich in oil, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, proteins, and micronutrients along with more than 100 known antioxidants and bioactive phytonutrients. The crude and purified RB extracts were used in pharmacological, cosmeceuticals, and food industries. Fermentation process improved the phytochemical constituents and enhanced the bioactivity of RB. The fermented RB (FRB) has been reported for the enhanced antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory bowel diseases, anti-diabetes activities, etc., FRB is used as potent animal feed, especially in poultry industries. RB bioactive principles were studied for their potential application in anti-aging treatments, and cosmetics. The current manuscript summarizes the changes in the phytochemical content of RB during the fermentation process and functional property of FRB.
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Using Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. To treat skin diseases: Comparison of traditional uses and research results p. 225
Chanyong Yun, Hyungwoo Kim
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_19_18  
Background: Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (AM), a member of restoratives for invigoration qi (補氣藥), has been used to treat patients with skin diseases in the framework of traditional medicine. The major efficacies of AM related to skin diseases are tonifying defensive qi and securing the exterior (益衛固表), expelling toxins and pus (托毒排膿), and promoting tissue regeneration and wound healing (生肌斂瘡). Materials and Methods: We investigated the traditional usages of AM described in the textbook and encyclopedia, and we also investigated scientific research using PubMed and the National Digital Library of Korea. Results: In our opinion, tonifying defensive qi and securing the exterior effect of AM is related to the photoprotective, antiaging, and protecting effects on normal skin tissue. Expelling toxins and pus and promoting tissue regeneration and wound healing effects are closely related to the anti-inflammatory effects and promoting healing of wounds or ulcers on the body surface, respectively. In addition, astragaloside IV, formononetin, calycosin, cycloastragenol (TA-65), and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the major components related to therapeutic effects of AM on skin diseases. Conclusion: The therapeutic effects of AM on skin diseases were divided into three categories according to the theory of traditional medicine, and its effects in each category can be explained by scientific experiments.
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Pharmacology of Mikania genus: A systematic review p. 230
Andressa Santa Brigida da Silva, Alex Oselu Owiti, Wagner Luiz Ramos Barbosa
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_10_18  
Genus Mikania, in which “guaco” species are included, encloses many species of pharmaceutical interest that are well distributed throughout South America. This work aims to make a systematic review of the clinical and nonclinical data already published about some Mikania species and their existing products, available in the pharmaceutical market. As usual, some species are more studied than others and the most studied species to date are Mikania glomerata, Mikania laevigata, Mikania scandens, and Mikania micrantha. The first two are widely used in Brazil to treat respiratory disorders and are available in different preparations marketed in retail pharmaceutical stores. Among the reported activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, and central nervous system activities were the most tested since they are directly related to the popular use of some species of this genus. In addition, a noteworthy amount of toxicological studies in animals are published in the literature. Thus, this systematic review aims to gather knowledge about Mikania genus and consequently to contribute for a safer use of derivatives of its species.
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Pharmacotherapeutic properties of Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.: A systematic review p. 238
Oluwadurotimi Samuel Aworunse, Oluwakemi Adetutu Bello, Jacob Olugbenro Popoola, Olawole Odun Obembe
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_12_18  
Globally, there has been a growing interest in medicinal plants by researchers. Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. (Fluted pumpkin) is cucurbitaceous vegetable grown in West Africa, particularly in Nigeria for its leaves and seeds. The curative properties of fluted pumpkin are popular in Nigerian folklore medicine, and several investigators have validated these therapeutic effects using animal models. The aim of this work therefore, was to review publicly available literature on the pharmacotherapeutic activities of T. occidentalis. Searches were performed on PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for related studies, with search dates set between 1990 and 2018. A total of 499 articles were retrieved and analyzed, with 38 studies ultimately retained. Studies contained in this review were carried out in Nigeria, across different locations. 13 categories of pharmacological activities for fluted pumpkin were documented after analyzing full texts of the articles retained. T. occidentalis offers myriad of healing properties that can be explored by pharmaceutical industries. As the search for potent drugs from botanical sources continues, there is need for future investigations to isolate and characterize pharmacologically active agents that confer medicinal properties on fluted pumpkin, as well as elucidate the structures of these agents and pathways by which they exert their healing properties.
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PLANT REVIEW Top

Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of neem (Azadirachta indica) p. 250
Arshad Husain Rahmani, Ahmad Almatroudi, Faris Alrumaihi, Amjad Ali Khan
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_8_18  
Azadirachta indica, a member of the Meliaceae family, is commonly known as neem and its role in disease cure has been documented. Different parts of this tree contain numerous types of ingredients such as azadirachtin and quercetin and limonoids such as nimbin, nimbidin, and nimbinin with diverse pharmacological activities. Neem tree parts have also been used as a general folk medicine, and more recently, its constituents have been purified and found to possess greater antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancerous activities. Moreover, its constituents also show therapeutic implications in the modulation of cell signaling pathways involved in the management of cancer. Moreover, neem and its ingredient might be a potential candidate in prevention and treatment of tumor due to its broader pharmacological activities. This review presents an overview of the health-promoting effects of neem and its ingredients through modulation of biological activities.
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