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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
Jan-Jun 2017
Volume 11 | Issue 21
Page Nos. 1-56

Online since Tuesday, April 11, 2017

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Review of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory assay: Rapid method in drug discovery of herbal plants p. 1
Islamudin Ahmad, Arry Yanuar, Kamarza Mulia, Abdul Mun'im
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_45_16  
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a signaling pathway which responsible in the blood pressure regulation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the key elements responsible for the hypertensive mechanism. It converts angiotensin-I to angiotensin-II. The discovery history of the ACE inhibitory activity assay method has been through a long stage for decades and development continues until today. The ACE inhibitory activity has become an effective screening method in the search for new antihypertensive agents from herbal plants. Some of in vitro assay methods were used to examine the activity of ACE inhibitors based on the substrate usage, such as; Cushman and Cheung Method using a substrate hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), Holmquist method using a substrate furanacryloyl-tripeptide, Elbl and Wagner method using a substrate benzoil-[l-14C] glicyl-L-histidine-L-leucine, Carmel and Yaron method using a substrate o-aminobenzoylglycyl-p-nitrophenylalanilproline, and Lam method using 3-hydroxybutyrylglycyl-glycyl-glycine as substrate. Several different methods to measure the results of enzymatic reactions or separating substrate with products, including spectrophotometric, fluorometric, high-performance liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, and radiochemistry. Application of the test method for screening the ACE inhibitors activity and investigation of active compounds from natural products can be done easily with this method, it is very helpful in research because the results obtained are simple, accurate, and rapid.
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Reflections about osteoarthritis and Curcuma longa p. 8
Marina Cristina Akuri, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Raíssa Meira Val, Elen Landgraf Guiguer
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_54_16  
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory degenerative process that affects joints such as the hands, hips, shoulders, feet, spine, and especially knees in millions of people worldwide. Some authors have shown that Curcuma longa components may exhibit benefic effects in the treatment of degenerative diseases as OA. This plant belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and it is popularly known as turmeric or saffron. This review intended to perform a retrospective search to identify studies involving humans and animal models. This review was based on articles linking OA and C. longa. Databases as Medline, Science Direct, and Lilacs were consulted and a retrospective search was carried out in order to identify studies involving humans and animal models. The curcuminoids from C. longa exhibit actions at different locations in the pathogenesis of OA once it may play an important role as anti-inflammatory, down-regulating enzymes as phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2, and lipoxygenases, and reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha-and interleukins such as interleukin-1b (IL-1b), IL-6, and IL-8. They also act as inducer of apoptosis in synoviocytes, decreasing the inflammation process and may also reduce the synthesis of reactive oxygen species. For these reasons, new pharmaceutical technology and pharmacological studies should be proposed to determine the dose, the best delivery vehicle, pharmaceutical formulation and route of administration of this plant so its use as an adjunct in the treatment of OA may become a reality in clinical practice.
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An updated phytopharmacological review on medicinal plant of arab region: Apium graveolens Linn p. 13
Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari, Md. Tanwir Athar, Saeed G Kadasah
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_35_16  
Apium graveolens Linn. (Karafs) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of the various ailments. There is a need to explore and authenticate the pharmacological profile and medicinal importance of the Karafs. In this paper, the literature and the published work on Apium were collected using online resources “Google scholar”, “Web of science”, “Scopus” and “PubMed”. Each of the pharmacological activity was searched individually using the keywords “Apium/Karafs/Apium graveolens + individual pharmacological activity”. We documented the most cited and most recent literatures. The current findings illuminate the importance Karafs in the traditional medicine and their impact in treating various diseases. This review strongly supports the fact that the Apium has emerged as a good source of medicine in treating various diseases. There is also a need to isolate the bioactive phytochemicals present in this plant.
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Antifertility effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis or paper flower p. 19
Anisa Ghogar, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_44_16  
Bougainvillea spectabilis (Family: Nyctaginaceae), commonly referred to as Great Bougainvillea or Paper Flower, is one of the traditional medicinal plants with potential antifertility activity. The aqueous extract and decoction of this plant have been used as fertility control among the tribal people in many countries. Furthermore, it has been shown to possess anticancer, antidiabetic, antihepatotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, oxalates, phenolics, phlobotannins, quinones, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids were reported as the basis of its efficacious therapeutic properties. The other important constituents which contribute to the remedial properties are bougainvinones, pinitol, quercetagetin, quercetin, and terpinolene. Published information on the antifertility property of B. spectabilis was gathered by the use of different database platforms including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SciFinder, and Scopus. These database platforms were used to provide an up-to-date review on its importance.
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Current understanding of antiobesity property of capsaicin p. 23
Nithida Narang, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul, Parinda Jamrus
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_48_16  
The capsaicin is an ingredient that we normally mix in food in many cultural cuisines even in fresh and dried production. Because of its anticancer, anticholesterolemic, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, capsaicin is used worldwide. Moreover, capsaicin is also used for the protection of cardiovascular and hepatic diseases. The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect were searched since 2000 to present for antiobesity term. This review article is provided the update information about the antiobesity property and mechanism of capsaicin for further researches.
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Fingerroot, Boesenbergia rotunda and its aphrodisiac activity p. 27
Oranun Ongwisespaiboon, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_50_16  
Boesenbergia rotunda (Family: Zingiberaceae) as known as fingerroot is a daily food ingredient and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiulcer activities and also shown wound healing. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, essential oils, flavonoids, and phenolics. This plant is rich in boesenbergin, krachaizin, panduratin, and pinostrobin, all of which has been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including aphrodisiac property. Based on established literature on the aphrodisiac property of B. rotunda and possible mode of action, this review article has attempted to compile that B. rotunda could be further explored for the development of potential aphrodisiac treatment.
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An update review on the anthelmintic activity of bitter gourd, Momordica charantia p. 31
Sutthaya Poolperm, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_52_16  
Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitales), as known as bitter melon or gourd, is a daily consumption as food and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, charantin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins, and terpenoids. This plant is rich in various saponins including momordicin, momordin, momordicoside, karavilagenin, karaviloside, and kuguacin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic infections. Based on established literature on the anthelmintic activity of M. charantia and possible mode of action, this review article has attempted to compile M. charantia could be further explored for the development of potential anthelmintic drug.
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Wound healing property review of siam weed, Chromolaena odorata p. 35
Anushika Sirinthipaporn, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_53_16  
Chromolaena odorata (Family: Asteraceae) synonyms as Eupatorium odoratum is a traditional medicinal plant that is widely used for its wound healing property. In particular, the several parts of this herb have been used to treat wounds, burns, and skin infections. Furthermore, it has also been shown to possess anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Its phytochemical components are alkaloids, flavonoids, flavanone, essential oils, phenolics, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids. The other important constituents of this plant are Eupolin, chromomoric acid, quercetagetin, and quercetin, all of which contribute to its remedial properties. Published information on the wound healing property of C. odorata was gathered by the use of different scientific websites such as Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge to provide an up-to-date review showing its importance.
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Pea, Pisum sativum, and its anticancer activity p. 39
Runchana Rungruangmaitree, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_57_16  
Pisum sativum (Family: Fabaceae), as known as green pea or garden pea, has long been important in diet due to its content of fiber, protein, starch, trace elements, and many phytochemical substances. It has been shown to possess antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemia, and antioxidant activities and also shown anticancer property. Its nonnutritive biologically active components include alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, isoflavones, phenols, phytosterols, phytic acid, protease inhibitors, saponins, and tannins. This plant is rich in apigenin, hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic, luteolin, and quercetin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including anticarcinogenesis property. Based on established literature on the anticancer property of P. sativum and possible mode of action, this review article has focused to demonstrate that P. sativum could be further explored for the development of anticancer treatment.
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A review on the pharmacological activities and phytochemicals of Alpinia officinarum (Galangal) extracts derived from bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation p. 43
Aida Maryam Basri, Hussein Taha, Norhayati Ahmad
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_55_16  
The rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance have been used conventionally for the treatment of various ailments, triggering a wide interest from the scientific research community on this ethnomedicinal plant. This review summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the extracts and fractions from A. officinarum, a plant species of the Zingiberaceae family. Different parts of the plant – leaves, roots, rhizomes, and aerial parts – have been extracted in various solvents – methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloromethane, aqueous, chloroform, and petroleum ether, using various techniques – Soxhlet extraction, maceration, ultrasonication, and soaking, whereas fractionation of the plant extracts involves the solvent–solvent partition method. The extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds have been studied for their biological activities – antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiproliferative, inhibition of enzymes, as well as the inhibition of nitric oxide production. More findings on A. officinarum are certainly important to further develop potential bioactive drug compounds.
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