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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
Jan-Jun 2019
Volume 13 | Issue 25
Page Nos. 1-33

Online since Wednesday, April 3, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

A comprehensive review on eugenol's antimicrobial properties and industry applications: A transformation from ethnomedicine to industry p. 1
Kit-Kay Mak, Masnah Banu Kamal, Sunday Buru Ayuba, Raghavendra Sakirolla, Yew-Beng Kang, Kavitha Mohandas, Madhu Katyayani Balijepalli, Sazali Hamzah Ahmad, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_46_18  
Eugenol and eugenol-containing plants are used in ethno and modern medicine for various biological activities including antimicrobial activity. This review article provides an insightful transformation of eugenol from being an ethnomedicine to being a food protectant in the food industry. Scientific publications on the antimicrobial activity of eugenol and its respective advancements were collected from scientific databases such as Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar published between 1995 and June 2018. The eugenol has shown significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, fungi, and virus. The eugenol has also shown synergistic effects with conventional antimicrobials. Formulations, such as micro- and nanoemulsions, nanocapsules, and nanoparticles, are prepared to improve the aqueous solubility and efficacy of eugenol. Eugenol is used as a food protectant in storing plants, grains, fruits, and livestock. This review covers eugenol's antimicrobial activities, formulations to improve aqueous solubility, and applications in the food industry. Extensive scientific investigations validated the ethnomedicinal uses of eugenol as an antimicrobial agent. Its activity on multidrug-resistant pathogens should further be explored to identify the molecular mechanisms and synergistic/antagonistic effects with conventional antimicrobials. There were no studies on investigating eugenol's potential in in vivo infectious animal models. This is the first review on eugenol that details the antimicrobial potential of eugenol and its possible applications as a protectant in the food industry.
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Can medicinal properties of watercress be relevant to human health? A systematic review based on preclinical study in vivo p. 10
Mirna Clemente, Marilis Dallarmi Miguel, Karina Bettega Felipe, Gislene Mari Fujiwara, Luiz Claudio Fernandes, Joseane de Fatima Gaspari Dias, Sandra Maria Warumby Zenin, Beatriz Cristina Konopatzki Hirota, Obdulio Gomes Miguel
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_37_18  
Nasturtium officinale (Watercress) is a perennial dicotyledonous herbaceous plant and a member of the Brassicaceae family. The leaves of this plant are used as a home remedy as expectorant and hypoglycemic. They can also be used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, as well as many other chronic diseases. This finding supports the idea of watercress being a health promoter. In addition, this study intends to provide recommendations for future research. This systematic review was performed by Science Direct, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Scopus from July 2017 to August 2018. A total of 14 preclinical studies with watercress were selected by the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 were with rats and mice and 1 fish. The search terms used were “bioactive compounds,” “Nasturtium,” “preclinical study,” and “systematic review.” For the quality of the individual studies, we adopted the risk of bias. The results of the selected articles with Nasturtium in animals showed positive effects on the improvement of the immune system, hypoglycemic hypercholesterolemia, and anti-inflammatory activity, sex hormones synthesis, the preventive effect on the renal stone formation, and others. Since Nasturtium is widely used for therapeutic and nontherapeutic purposes that trigger its significant value, a new approach is necessary. Different combinations and the numerous medicinal properties of its extract juice and leaves, whether administrated orally or topically, demand further studies about other useful and unknown properties of this multipurpose plant. Finally, it is suggested by our reviewers that more studies with animals to be applied to human health, should be investigated of bioactive compounds from watercress.
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Mangifera and Impatiens from Sumatra: Phylogenetic positions and their modes of action as anticancer agents p. 16
Agustina Dwi Retno Nurcahyanti
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_26_18  
Cancer has become a growing health threat due to the emergence of multidrug resistance and the increasing diversity of cancer cells. The continuous investigation into the development of anticancer agents and treatments is crucial because the current treatments can cause adverse side effects and are often ineffective. Anticancer derived medicinal plants are a potential source of treatment. However, the abundance of medicinal plant species can cause several problems, like the adulteration. The author aims to demonstrate DNA Barcoding technique as a tool to perform phylogenetic positions of Mangifera and Impatiens species grown in Sumatra. The phylogenetic positions of the plants are supported by the review on the active secondary metabolites from Mangifera and Impatiens. The current study is based on unpublished work on DNA Barcoding technique, an established modern technique to identify the phylogenetic position and also adulteration in medicinal plants. The review on the active secondary metabolites including the mechanism of action as anticancer is based on pertinent papers that were retrieved using relevant keywords in PubMed and Science Direct. Work using DNA Barcoding technique confirmed that Mangifera and Impatiens from Sumatra are closely related to Momordica foetida and Impatiens balsamina from other areas, indicating that they may share the same anticancer traits with those species. The mechanism of action of Mangifera and Impatiens includes inhibition of the cell cycle, cytotoxicity activity, apoptosis and leading to cell death, and anti-angiogenesis activity. Further research on both species is needed to identify their relevant chemical components to potentially develop anticancer drugs, either as a single compound or as a drug combination with minimal side effects and also to determine possible adverse reactions.
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The beneficial properties of virgin coconut oil in management of atopic dermatitis p. 24
Yik-Ling Chew
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_29_18  
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by intense pruritus and eczematous lesions. It is an increasingly pruritic inflammatory skin disorder which can affect both children and adults. Natural products offer great hope in the identification of bioactive lead compounds and their development into topical cream or ointment in managing skin diseases which are associated with inflammatory response. One of the most popular natural products which have been vastly used in managing AD is virgin coconut oil (VCO). VCO is extracted from the fresh and mature kernel of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) through wet and dry methods, without altering the valuable phytochemicals and physiochemical properties of the oil. It possesses numerous health benefits from the retained physiochemical properties from its triglycerides and medium chain fatty acids. The use of VCO in the management of AD is one of the topical therapies which have been proven to have good therapeutic effects and it is safe for topical applications. Studies have been proven that VCO exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, wound healing, and moisturizing properties which were extremely important in the management of AD.
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The potential of xanthones as a therapeutic option in macrophage-associated inflammatory diseases p. 28
Ida May Jen Ng, Caroline Lin Lin Chua
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_25_18  
Xanthones are well known for their significant biological activities and can be found in many herbal medicines. These compounds have the ability to regulate various inflammatory activities and signaling pathways in immune cells, especially macrophages. Macrophages are innate immune cells that can either fuel or dampen an inflammatory response depending on their activation states and play an active role in the development of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer, and diabetes. Many traditional medicines used as a remedy for these diseases contain xanthones, and their bioactivities may be partially attributed to their ability in regulating macrophage responses. In this review, we discuss the in vitro and in vivo findings on the effects of xanthones on different macrophage immune functions including nitric oxide and cytokine production, migration, polarization, and phagocytosis. Their specific modes of action are highlighted whenever known. We also discuss the potential and challenges in using xanthones as a therapeutic option in various inflammatory diseases. It is hoped that this review can pave the way for future research that focuses on developing xanthones as specific macrophage-targeted therapeutics.
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