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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2017
Volume 11 | Issue 22
Page Nos. 57-174

Online since Tuesday, September 19, 2017

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Developing new antimicrobial therapies: Are synergistic combinations of plant extracts/compounds with conventional antibiotics the solution? Highly accessed article p. 57
Matthew J Cheesman, Aishwarya Ilanko, Baxter Blonk, Ian E Cock
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_21_17  PMID:28989242
The discovery of penicillin nearly 90 years ago revolutionized the treatment of bacterial disease. Since that time, numerous other antibiotics have been discovered from bacteria and fungi, or developed by chemical synthesis and have become effective chemotherapeutic options. However, the misuse of antibiotics has lessened the efficacy of many commonly used antibiotics. The emergence of resistant strains of bacteria has seriously limited our ability to treat bacterial illness, and new antibiotics are desperately needed. Since the discovery of penicillin, most antibiotic development has focused on the discovery of new antibiotics derived from microbial sources, or on the synthesis of new compounds using existing antibiotic scaffolds to the detriment of other lines of discovery. Both of these methods have been fruitful. However, for a number of reasons discussed in this review, these strategies are unlikely to provide the same wealth of new antibiotics in the future. Indeed, the number of newly developed antibiotics has decreased dramatically in recent years. Instead, a reexamination of traditional medicines has become more common and has already provided several new antibiotics. Traditional medicine plants are likely to provide further new antibiotics in the future. However, the use of plant extracts or pure natural compounds in combination with conventional antibiotics may hold greater promise for rapidly providing affordable treatment options. Indeed, some combinational antibiotic therapies are already clinically available. This study reviews the recent literature on combinational antibiotic therapies to highlight their potential and to guide future research in this field.
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A comprehensive review on Rasam: A South Indian traditional functional food p. 73
Agilandeswari Devarajan, MK Mohanmarugaraja
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_13_17  PMID:28989243
The view that food can have an expanded role that goes well beyond providing a source of nutrients truly applies to traditional functional foods. The systematic consumption of such traditional functional food provides an excellent preventive measure to ward off many diseases. Rasam, a soup of spices, is a traditional South Indian food. It is traditionally prepared using tamarind juice as a base, with the addition of Indian sesame oil, turmeric, tomato, chili pepper, pepper, garlic, cumin, curry leaves, mustard, coriander, asafoetida, sea salt, and water. Rasam is a classic example of traditional functional food with all its ingredients medicinally claimed for various ailments. The preclinical and clinical studies on rasam and its ingredients support their traditional claim. This review is an attempt to compile the literatures on rasam, its ingredients, and to highlight its medicinal potential that has been underestimated.
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Herbal drugs from Sudan: Traditional uses and phytoconstituents p. 83
Mohamed Gamaleldin Elsadig Karar, Nikolai Kuhnert
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_15_15  PMID:28989244
Sudan folklore medicine is characterized by a unique combination of Islamic, Arabic, and African cultures. In poor communities, traditional medicine has remained as the most reasonable source of treatment of several diseases and microbial infections. Although the traditional medicine is accepted in Sudan, to date there is no updated review available, which focuses on most effective and frequently used Sudanese medicinal plants. Thus, this review aims to summarize the published information on the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants from Sudan, preparation methods, phytochemistry, and ethnopharmacology. The collected data demonstrate that Sudanese medicinal plants have been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses including different microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders, malaria, diabetes, rheumatic pain, respiratory system disorders, jaundice, urinary system inflammations, wounds, cancer, and different microbial infections. In most cases, the pharmacological studies were in agreement with traditional uses. Moreover, several bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, tannins, fatty acids, and essential oils have been identified as active constituents. Although this review demonstrates the importance of ethnomedicine medicines in the treatment of several diseases in Sudan, further researches to validate the therapeutic uses and safety of these plants through phytochemical screening, different biological activity assays, and toxicological studies are still needed.
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Plants' natural products as alternative promising anti-Candida drugs p. 104
Sameh Soliman, Dina Alnajdy, Ali A El-Keblawy, Kareem A Mosa, Ghalia Khoder, Ayman M Noreddin
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_8_17  PMID:28989245
Candida is a serious life-threatening pathogen, particularly with immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in a broad range of immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are common in hospitalized patients and elderly people. The difficulty to eradicate Candida infections is owing to its unique switch between yeast and hyphae forms and more likely to biofilm formations that render resistance to antifungal therapy. Plants are known sources of natural medicines. Several plants show significant anti-Candida activities and some of them have lower minimum inhibitory concentration, making them promising candidates for anti-Candida therapy. However, none of these plant products is marketed for anti-Candida therapy because of lack of sufficient information about their efficacy, toxicity, and kinetics. This review revises major plants that have been tested for anti-Candida activities with recommendations for further use of some of these plants for more investigation and in vivo testing including the use of nanostructure lipid system.
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General overview of phenolics from plant to laboratory, good antibacterials or not p. 123
Omar A Aldulaimi
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_43_16  PMID:28989246
The emergence and rapid development of seriously drug-resistant pathogens have created the greatest danger to public health and made the treatment of infectious diseases ineffective; to control the antibiotic-resistant microbes, the discovery of new effective antibacterials with new mechanisms of action against bacteria remains an urgent task to control the bacterial resistance. The paucity of infections in wild plants supports the role of innate defense system of plants. Many researchers nominate the natural extracts to act against bacterial resistance mechanisms, and the majority of them have now been focused on the combination of plant extracts and antibiotics to define the availability of resistance modification agents. Only very few numbers of natural products are successful to reach experiments circle beyond the in vitro assays. Phenols and phenolic acids could serve as good candidates to the natural antibacterial arsenal. The pyrogallol-based compounds are more potent than others such as catechol or resorcinol, gallic acid, and the hydroxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid) are destructing the bacterial cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, leading to leakage of cellular contents. These compounds have stronger activity against Gram-positive microorganisms, and some of them showed good synergism with antibiotics, for example, pentagalloylglucopyranose, is shown a synergism with penicillin G against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, another example is the interesting synergism between epicatechin gallate and oxacillin where the minimal inhibitory concentrations of oxacillin reduced around 500 times by the addition of epicatechin gallate to the antibiotic.
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Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction for the treatment of diabetic complications: Pharmacological interventions through natural products p. 128
Aakruti Arun Kaikini, Divya Manohar Kanchan, Urvi Narayan Nerurkar, Sadhana Sathaye
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_41_16  PMID:28989247
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic hyperglycemic condition with deleterious effects on microcirculation, resulting in diabetic complications. Chronic hyperglycemia induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are the key pathological triggers in the development of diabetic complications. ROS are responsible for the activation of various pathways involved in the genesis of diabetic complications, mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as insulin resistance. The review describes normal mitochondrial physiology and abnormal alterations, which occur in response to hyperglycemia. Mitochondrial biogenesis is a highly regulated process mediated by several transcription factors, wherein mitochondrial fusion and fission occur in harmony in a normal healthy cell. However, this harmony is disrupted in hyperglycemic condition indicated by alteration in functions of essential transcription factors. Hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in diabetic complications, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, as well as skeletal muscle insulin resistance as demonstrated by various in vitro, preclinical, and clinical studies. The review focuses on the various factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and maintenance of healthy mitochondrial function. Several phytoconstituents act through these pathways, either directly by stimulating biogenesis or indirectly by inhibiting or preventing dysfunction, and produce a beneficial effect on overall mitochondrial function. These phytoconstituents have enormous potential in amelioration of diabetic complications by restoring normal mitochondrial physiology and need detailed evaluation by preclinical and clinical studies. Such phytoconstituents can be included as nutraceuticals or adjuvant therapy to the mainstream treatment of diabetes.
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Potential antitumor effects of pomegranates and its ingredients p. 136
Arshad H Rahmani, Mohammed A Alsahli, Saleh A Almatroodi
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_25_17  PMID:28989248
The treatment based on plant or plant derivatives is a promising strategy in the killing of cancers cells. Moreover, wide-ranging finding has established that medicinal plant and its ingredient modulate several cells signaling pathways or inhibiting the carcinogenesis process. In this vista, pomegranates fruits, seeds and peels illustrate cancer preventive role seems to be due to rich source of antioxidant and other valuable ingredients. Furthermore, anti-tumour activities of pomegranates have been evidences through the modulation of cell signaling pathways including transcription factor, apoptosis and angiogenesis. In this review article, anti-tumor activity of pomegranates and its components or its different type of extracts are described to understand the mechanism of action of pomegranates in cancer therapy.
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Review of Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC.: Pharmacognostic, pharmacological, and toxicological perspective p. 141
Pallavi Shrirang Jamadagni, Sharad D Pawar, Shrirang B Jamadagni, Shridhar Chougule, Sudesh N Gaidhani, SN Murthy
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_31_16  PMID:28989249
Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC. is a medicinal plant abundantly found in India. Its uses are mentioned in the classical Ayurvedic literature and by many folklore claims. The plant is also of extreme economic importance. Its seeds are mainly used as an antidiabetic remedy. All pharmacological and toxicological aspects of this plant are discussed in this review.
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A review study on phytochemistry and pharmacology applications of Juglans regia plant p. 145
Hamdollah Delaviz, Jamshid Mohammadi, Ghasem Ghalamfarsa, Bahram Mohammadi, Naser Farhadi
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_10_17  PMID:28989250
In recent years, the use of medicinal plants increased considerably; so that today, the use of traditional medicine, as well as medicinal plants is necessary for the aim of producing more effective drugs with fewer side effects and determining the effective doses. With the scientific name of Juglans regia, walnut plant is a medicinal plant with different properties that is considered less, despite having great therapeutic potential in the traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to review the dispersal of walnut plants, the chemical compounds, and therapeutic effects of walnuts on antioxidant activity, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, and antihypertensive activities, as well as liver protection. Data of this review study have been collected from the books and scientific articles published in databases such as Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Scientific Information Database. While this plant having high antioxidant capabilities, walnuts are composed of many chemical compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, quercetin, and caffeic acid. Experimental studies have shown that walnuts reduced blood glucose and lipids and also decreased blood pressure. They have antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and liver-protective properties. The use of walnuts in traditional medicine and review of experimental studies demonstrated the presence of multiple, effective, and useful compounds which may provide the opportunity for the production of lipid-lowering, antidiabetes, and liver protective drugs. Due to the effects of walnuts on improving the complications of various diseases, the need for doing comprehensive clinical trials for the use of walnuts in the treatment of diseases is necessary.
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A hidden treasure: The borneo mistletoes p. 153
Ya Chee Lim, Rajan Rajabalaya, Sheba Rani David
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_16_17  PMID:28989251
The European mistletoe, Viscum album, is the most common consumed adjuvant among cancer patients in Europe. Its success warrants a report on three most apparent mistletoes found in Borneo Island, namely Scurrula ferruginea, Macrosolen cochinchinensis, and Dendrophthoe curvata. The traditional and pharmacological uses of these mistletoes include antibacterial, anticancer, antiviral, antihypertensive, antioxidative, and cytotoxic effects. Phytochemicals such as flavonols, alkaloids, tannins, and gallic acid have been reported in one of these mistletoes. This review discusses the potential of these mistletoes as therapeutic agents.
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Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso as a medicinal plant species: A review on bioactive components and pharmacological properties p. 158
Shweta Gupta, Akash Ved
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_6_17  PMID:28989252
Operculina turpethum (Linn.) (OT) Silva Manso belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. This review incorporates literature for the phytochemical and pharmacological profile of OT herb. Exhaustive literature survey was done using all the details on phytochemistry and pharmacology of OT available. This herb was found to be a potent source of bioactive compounds such as α- and β-turpethein, turpethinic acids (A, B, C, D, and E), coumarins, cycloartenol, lanosta-5-ene, 24-methylene-δ-5-lanosterol, α- and β-rhamnose, β-sitosterol, lupeol, scopoletin, betulin, acrylamide, stigma-5,22dien-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside (H-1), 22,23-dihydro-α-spinosterol-β-D-glucoside (H-2), and salicylic acid (CH-2), which are useful in fevers, edema, ascites, anorexia, constipation, hepatosplenomegaly, hemorrhoids, cervical lymphadenitis, fistulas, constipation, chronic gout, fever, bronchitis, ulcers, hemorrhoids, tumors, obesity, jaundice, herpes, induce lacrimation, and other skin disorders. From the aerial parts of OT, four new dammarane-type saponins that are operculinosides A–D (1–4) were isolated that showed particular hepatoprotective activities. All the compounds are reported to possess pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hepatoprotective, anti-arthritic, ulcer protective, antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, and cytotoxic properties.
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Psidium guajava: A single plant for multiple health problems of rural Indian population p. 167
Poonam G Daswani, Manasi S Gholkar, Tannaz J Birdi
DOI:10.4103/phrev.phrev_17_17  PMID:28989253
The rural population in India faces a number of health problems and often has to rely on local remedies. Psidium guajava Linn. (guava), a tropical plant which is used as food and medicine can be used by rural communities due to its several medicinal properties. A literature search was undertaken to gauge the rural health scenario in India and compile the available literature on guava so as to reflect its usage in the treatment of multiple health conditions prevalent in rural communities. Towards this, electronic databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, google scholar were scanned. Information on clinical trials on guava was obtained from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrial.gov. The literature survey revealed that guava possesses various medicinal properties which have been reported from across the globe in the form of ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological surveys, laboratory investigations and clinical trials. Besides documenting the safety of guava, the available literature shows that guava is efficacious against the following conditions which rural communities would encounter. (a) Gastrointestinal infections; (b) Malaria; (c)Respiratory infections; (d) Oral/dental infections; (e) Skin infections; (f) Diabetes; (g) Cardiovascular/hypertension; (h) Cancer; (i) Malnutrition; (j) Women problems; (k) Pain; (l) Fever; (m) Liver problems; (n) Kidney problems. In addition, guava can also be useful for treatment of animals and explored for its commercial applications. In conclusion, popularization of guava, can have multiple applications for rural communities.
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