|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 21 | Page : 13-18
An updated phytopharmacological review on medicinal plant of arab region: Apium graveolens Linn
Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari1, Md. Tanwir Athar1, Saeed G Kadasah2
1 Department of Research Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh 11159, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Psychiatry, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh 11159, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
|Date of Web Publication||11-Apr-2017|
Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari
Department of Research Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, P.O. Box: 7897 (777-S), Riyadh 11159
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Apium graveolens Linn. (Karafs) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of the various ailments. There is a need to explore and authenticate the pharmacological profile and medicinal importance of the Karafs. In this paper, the literature and the published work on Apium were collected using online resources “Google scholar”, “Web of science”, “Scopus” and “PubMed”. Each of the pharmacological activity was searched individually using the keywords “Apium/Karafs/Apium graveolens + individual pharmacological activity”. We documented the most cited and most recent literatures. The current findings illuminate the importance Karafs in the traditional medicine and their impact in treating various diseases. This review strongly supports the fact that the Apium has emerged as a good source of medicine in treating various diseases. There is also a need to isolate the bioactive phytochemicals present in this plant.
Keywords: Apium graveolens, Arab Medicine, Karafs, Traditional Arab and Islamic Medicine
|How to cite this article:|
Al-Asmari AK, Athar MT, Kadasah SG. An updated phytopharmacological review on medicinal plant of arab region: Apium graveolens Linn. Phcog Rev 2017;11:13-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Al-Asmari AK, Athar MT, Kadasah SG. An updated phytopharmacological review on medicinal plant of arab region: Apium graveolens Linn. Phcog Rev [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Apr 26];11:13-8. Available from: http://www.phcogrev.com/text.asp?2017/11/21/13/204361
| Introduction|| |
Since the ancient times, the human being is facing with the disease and discomfort and is struggling to antagonize it with different approaches. Among all the treatments, herbs are continuously used for the treatment of all the ailments.
Nowadays, the herbal drug is not in the list of the mainline therapies; however, due to the unwanted toxicity and side effects, the tilt toward the herbal therapy is again gaining momentum. Herbal medicine is now an accepted medicine as complementary and alternative therapy in combination with the main line therapies. Herbal medicine is now recognized in Europe and America. The sales of herb as dietary products was increased in America by around 7% in 2014. The estimated cost of the current herbal market is more than $6.4 billion. The growth is increasing continuously since the last 11 years in a row., In Europe, an estimated 18.8% of the population who has been surveyed is using at least one plant supplements. Because of the popularity of the herbal medicine in global market, it is logical to focus on the herbs which are used for the medicinal purpose. Due to this fact, Apium graveolens, a commonly used plant of Arab traditional medicine, has been reviewed.
A. graveolens is a biennial plant locally known as “Karafs”, belonging to family Apiaceae. Various parts of A. graveolens are used in hepatic and spleen disorders, brain disorders, body pain, and sleep disturbances.
Previously published data show that A. graveolens have antifungal, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, diuretic, and anticancer properties.,,
| Botanical Classification|| |
Kingdom – Plantae
Subkingdom – Tracheobionta
Superdivision – Spermatophyta
Division – Magnoliopsida
Subclass – Rosidae
Order – Apiales
Family – Apiaceae
Genus – Apium
Species – A graveolens Linn.
| Nomenclature in Different Language|| |
Arabic - Karafs; Chinese - Qin cai; English - Celery; Greek - Udasaliyon; Hindi - Ajmud; Persian - Karafs; Roman - Baatrakhiyun; Urdu - Ajmod.
| Geographical Indication|| |
Celery was first cultivated as a food plant in Europe, mainly in Italy and France. From here, the plant spreads to Sweden, Algeria, Egypt, and Ethiopia and then to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Central Region (Najd) is said to be the main geographical region of this plant in the KSA.,
| Plant Description|| |
The root of the A. graveolens is shallow and thickened in the middle. The stem is branched, furrowed, succulent, and rigid. The leaves are pinnate and ovate in shape. The size of flower is small and it is white/greenish-white. The inflorescence is a compound dumbbell. Calyx is obsolete; petals are roundish entire; disk is depressed. Fruits are schizocarp with two mericarps, suborbicular to ellipsoid in shape, and slightly bitter in taste.,
The dried ripe fruit (sometimes called as seed) is mainly used for the medicinal purposes and commercially available in the market. The celery fruits are separated mericarp, each cremocarp is brown roundish ovoid, laterally compressed, and about 1.0–1.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, and 1.5 mm thick. The seeds are orthospermous. The odor and taste of the seed are aromatic.
The transverse section of the plant showed a wavy outline. Each mericarp is composed of five ridges and 6–9 vittae. The epicarp of the fruit is divided into exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp. Exocarp is made up of parenchymatous cells that are single-layered, thin-walled, and rectangular in shape. The outer part of the exocarp is coated with cuticle. Mesocarp also consists of polygonal- to oval-shaped parenchymatous cells. Endocarp also contains large parenchymatous cells. Testa is made up of single-layered elongated cells. Endosperm contains aleurone grains and calcium oxalate crystals.
| The Use Of Apium In Traditional Arab and Islamic Medicine|| |
The plant is mentioned in the Traditional Arab and Islamic Medicine with the name “Karafs.” According to old literature, it was also called as Udasaliyon in the Greece. Arab and Islamic literature mentioned five different types of the Karafs, which are known as Bustani, Maiee, Sakhuri, Nabti, and Jabli. As the name suggests, the Bustani is a locally cultivated plant while Jabli grows on mountains, Sakhuri grows in stony areas, Nabti grows in sheltered area, and the Maiee is the one which grows near water and ponds.
The plant is also mentioned by the famous Arab scholars in their literature. Al-Biruni stated that the Karafs is called as Sumbul by the people from Tirmidh, Khatl, and Bukhara. Avicenna also documented the five types of Karafs., According to Al-Rhazes, the plant Maiee variety is bigger in size as compared to Bustani while Jabli and Sakhuri are Roman in origin and pungent in taste.
Imam Ibn-al-Qayyim, who wrote a famous book on the prophetic medicine, describes that wet celery leaves help to cool the stomach & liver and also acts as diuretic and helps in menstrual problem and kidney stones.
Celery also stimulates semen production and relieves offensive breath. Al-Rajhi said that one should avoid eating celery if he/she fears that he/she might suffer a scorpion sting.
| Phytochemical Constituents|| |
The constituents of the celery include glycosides, steroids, and different types of phenolic including furanocoumarins, flavones, and trace elements (sodium, potassium, calcium and iron).,
There is variability of the constituents in the different parts of the plants. The main chemical constituents present in each part of the plant are as follows:
The roots contains falcarinol, falcarindiol, panaxidol, and polyacetylene 8-O-methylfalcarindiol.
The stem contains pectic polysaccharide (apiuman) containing d-galacturonic acid, 1-rhamnose, 1-arabinose, and d-galactose.
Twenty-eight components are obtained from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of the volatile oil obtained from the leaf. The important compounds are 1-dodecanol, 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid, methyl ester, and tetradecence-1-ol acetate.
Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, apiin, apigenin, rutaretin, ocimene, bergapten, and isopimpinellin are reported to be found in celery seed. The other substances such as seslin, isoimperatorin, osthenol, and gravebioside A and B were also found in the seeds. Literature also showed that seslin, isoimperatorin, osthenol, gravebioside A and B, umbelliferone are present in the seeds of the plants.
The seed oil is composed of palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, petroselinic acid, d-limonene, selinene, terpineol, and santolol. The aroma of the oil is due to the presence of sedanonic anhydride and sedanolide in the seed oil., The maximum concentration of the oil was found in 5-week-old fruits.
The different group of chemical constituents found in the A. graveolens is enlisted in [Table 1].
| Traditional Uses|| |
Celery has been used in the traditional system of medicine to treat spasm and stomach problems and as diuretic, laxative, and sedative. It is used as heart tonic to lower the blood pressure in African traditional medicine in Trinidad and Tobago. There is also a report to the use of celery in joint problems. The celery seed is well known as libido stimulant in the traditional system of medicine due to its protective role against the sodium valproate in testes and amplification of the sperm profile., It also increases the secretion of breast milk.
| Pharmacological Activity|| |
The methanolic extract of A. graveolens seed was found to have significant activity against paracetamol-induced  and carbon tetra chloride-induced  liver damage. A. graveolens extract dose- dependentlyattenuated the rise in various hepatotoxicity markers including aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, and total protein when compared with silymarin. Histopathological studies also showed the reversal of paracetamol-induced structural changes of liver tissues.
In another study, dietary intake of celery along with chicory and barley attenuates the elevated serum liver enzymes, total cholesterol, triglycerides and improves lipid profile in cholesterol-fed diets.
A. graveolens is a big source phenolic compounds, which provides a good source of antioxidants. The antioxidant activity of Karafs leaf was investigated (by scavenging of the 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] radical activity) and found to be a strong natural antioxidant by inhibiting oxidant process. It may be attributed to its antioxidant constituents including L-tryptophan and derivatives of methoxy-phenyl chromenone.
In another experiment, the organic and inorganic extracts of celery were tested and both of the extracts were found to a good scavenger of OH and DPPH radicals.In vivo experiments with CCl4-induced toxicity also showed the significant protective effects.
Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activity
The seed oil of the celery has a strong larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activity against the Aedes aegypti larva, the vector of dengue hemorrhage fever., In another study, the mosquito repellent activity of celery oil (with 5% vanillin) was found better repellent activity than a number of commercially used repellent.
Nonpolar extract of root and bulbs of A. graveolens was tested against the lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines CEM-C7H2 cell lines. The extract showed the significant cytotoxicity.
The antidiabetic effect of the aqueous extract of the celery seed was tested on the diabetic rat. It was that intraperitoneal administration of the extract leads to changes in the lipid profile.
The anti-inflammatory activity of celery was studied in croton oil-induced ear test model in mice. Results showed that the potency of the anti-inflammatory was seven times lower than the indomethacin. The mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory activity may be due to the inhibitory activity of its active constituents apiin against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitride oxide (NO) production. Apiuman, a pectic polysaccharide found in the celery, has also been found to decrease the interleukin-1β and increased interleukin-10 production and diminish the neutrophils migra, which may also be the cause of its anti-inflammatory activity. The stems of the celery plant also possessed significant anti-inflammatory activity due to the presence of polar constituents in the aqueous extract.
A. graveolens has been found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Escherichia More Details coli. The activity was more in the ethanolic extracts as compared to the aqueous and hexane extract.
The ethanolic extract of the seed of celery possessed significant analgesic activity when tested against acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate method. The analgesic effect of celery is attributed to the involvement of celery in the cytochrome P450, which was found to be decreased in the liver homogenate.
The ethanolic extract of celery seed significantly protects the indomethacin and cytodestructive agents (80% ethanol, 0.2M NaOH, and 25% NaCl) induced gastric ulcer. The results were assessed by biochemical and histopathological analysis of the control and treated samples. Extract significantly protects the gastric mucosa and suppresses the basal gastric secretion in rats possibly through its antioxidant potential that is evident from the presence of antioxidants compound (flavonoids, tannins) in the extract.
Ethanolic extract of the A. graveolens showed a significant anti-spasmolytic activity. It inhibited the ileum concentration in a dose-dependent manner. The activity may be attributed due to the presence of a flavonoid, apigenin.
The celery extracts were found to have a protective effect against the sodium valproate-induced testicular toxicity in rats. The histopathological analysis supported the results. Apigenin found as a major constituent in the extract may be responsible for the activity. Protective study of the Apium was also studied against the chemically induced rat testis damage. It was found that celery has positive effect in the recovery of testis and sexual.,,
A. graveolens has been found to have a potent antiplatelet activity. The effect is due to the presence of apigenin found in the extract. Apigenin inhibits the collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and arachiadonic acid induced aggregation of platelet. In addition, apigenin also inhibited collagen-ADP-induced aggregation in blood.
The hydroalcoholic extract of celery (A. graveolens) has been investigated for its effect on lipid profile of rats fed a high-fat diet. The result showed that celery significantly decreased the cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein in the treated group as compared to the control group.,
The mechanism of hypocholesterolemic activity is attributed to its effect on bile acid secretion as well as the presence of polar compounds with sugar/amino acid moiety in the extract.
It was found that apigenin isolated from the celery inhibited the contraction of aortic ring caused by cumulative concentration of calcium in high potassium medium. This relaxation of thoracic aorta may be attributed the Ca 2+ ion suppressing effect of celery through both voltage and receptor operated calcium channels.
In another study, derivative of 3-butylpathalide isolated from the celery showed significance cardiotonic activity. It acts by inhibiting the calcium dependent and independent release of glutamate from synaptosomes. It also decreases the nitric oxide (NO) content and NOS activity in the global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model in rats. In addition, it also significantly inhibits the expression of the inducible NOS protein.
The celery juice has also been tested on the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. The content of reduced glutathione, activity of catalase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation intensity in the liver homogenate and blood hemolysate was measured. The results showed the cardioprotective activity as compared to toxic group.
| Toxicity and Safety|| |
The plant is generally safe for the common use. Although it causes the allergy in the central European population. The most important allergen are PR-10 (Api g 1), nonspecific lipid transfer protein – LTP 1 (Api g 2), profilin (Api g 4), and flavoprotein (Api g 5). Api g 2 and Api g 4 are potentially dangerous for allergic individuals because these allergens may induce an anaphylactic reaction.
The plant is also reported to be infected with the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that causes dermatitis in sensitive people. This is common in Caucasians. Some people are allergic to the cress and it may cause anaphylaxis. The consumption should be avoided in case of pregnancy as it has uterine stimulant activity.
| Conclusion|| |
The ancient literature and the practice among the local population clearly indicate that herbal medicine is being practiced in the Arab region since long back.
In this review, we documented the medicinal importance of the A. graveolens (Karafs) that is being used as anthelmintic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, laxative, sedative stimulants in the Arab traditional medicine. The description of the plants and its medicinal importance as per the old Arab literature has been summarized. In addition, the phytochemical investigation the pharmacological activity which has been carried out so far has been summarized.
There is a need to preserve the pharmacological profile and the medicinal importance of the Karafs. There is also need to isolate the bioactive phytochemicals that are present in the plants. Karafs needs effective utilization to make a hallmark to treat the various diseases and to be available for ordinary population.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Smith T, Lynch ME, Johnson J, Kawa K, Bauman H, Blumenthal M. Herbal and dietary supplement sales in the US increase 6/8% in 2014. Herbal Gram 2015;107:52-9.
Izzo AA, Hoon-Kim S, Radhakrishnan R, Williamson EM. A critical approach to evaluating clinical efficacy, adverse events and drug interactions of herbal remedies. Phytother Res 2016;30:691-700.
Garcia-Alvarez A, Egan B, de Klein S, Dima L, Maggi FM, Isoniemi M, et al
. Usage of plant food supplements across six European countries: findings from the PlantLIBRA consumer survey. PLoS One 2014;9:e92265.
Fazal SS, Singla RK. Review on the pharmacognostical and pharmacological characterization of Apium graveolens
Linn. Indo Glob J Pharm Sci 2012;2:36-42.
Singh A, Handa SS. Hepatoprotective activity of Apium graveolens
and Hygrophila auriculata
against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;49:119-26.
Mansi K, Abushoffa AM, Disi A, Aburjai T. Hypolipidemic effects of seed extract of celery (Apium graveolens
) in rats. Pharmacogn Mag 2009;5:301.
Gauri M, Ali SJ, Khan MS. A review of Apium graveolens
(Karafs) with special reference to Unani medicine. Int Arch Integr Med 2015;2:131-6.
Migahid AM. Flora of Saudi Arabia. Riyadh: Riyadh University Publication; 1978.
Al-Asmari AK, Al-Elaiwi AM, Athar MT, Tariq M, Al Eid A, Al-Asmary SM. A review of hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi traditional medicine. Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2014;2014:1-23.
Rastogi RP, Mehrotra B. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: Central Drug Research Institute; Publications & Information Directorate; 1990.
Khory RN, Katrak NN. Materia Medica of India and Their Therapeutics. Maharashtra: Komal Prakashan; 1999.
Hussain M. Makhzan al Advia (The assets of medicine). Lucknow: Munshi Naval Kishore Press; 1844.
Baitar I. The compendium of Single drug and Food products. Urdu translation by CCRUM). Vol. 4. New Delhi: Dept. of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India; 2003. p. 58-60.
Sina I. Canon of medicine. Lucknow, India: Mataba Munshi Naval Kishore; 2007.
Khan M. Qaranful (clove). In: Khan MA, editor. Moheet-e-Azam. Vol. III. Kanpur, India: Matba Nizami; 1893.
Tyagi S, Dhruv M, Ishita M, Gupta AK, Usman MRM, Nimbiwal B, et al
. Medical benefits of Apium graveolens
(celery herb). J Drug Discov Ther 2013;1:36-8.
Hussain MT, Ahmed G, Jahan N, Adiba M. Unani description of Tukhme Karafs (seeds of Apium graveolens
Linn) and its scientific reports. Int Res J Biol Sci 2013;2:88-93.
Zidorn C, Jöhrer K, Ganzera M, Schubert B, Sigmund EM, Mader J, et al
. Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae
vegetables carrot, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip and their cytotoxic activities. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:2518-23.
Ovodova RG, Golovchenko VV, Popov SV, Popova GY, Paderin NM, Shashkov AS, et al
. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of pectic polysaccharide isolated from celery stalks. Food Chem 2009;114:610-5.
Nagella P, Ahmad A, Kim SJ, Chung IM. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and larvicidal effects of essential oil from leaves of Apium graveolens
. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2012;34:205-9.
Sastri B. The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. Raw Materials. The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. Raw Materials; 1956. p. 4.
Sastri B. The Wealth of India Raw Material. New Delhi: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research; 2003. p. 64-5.
Pan H, Kenney D. Quantitative determination of fatty acid constituents of celery seeds by gas-liquid partition chromatography. In Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society; 1960. p. 219-23.
Bhatnagar JK, Handa SS. Thin layer chromatographic studies of volatile oils from common umbelliferous fruits during growth. Res Bull Punjab Univ Sci 1968;4:331-4.
Birt D, Mitchell D, Gold B, Pour P, Pinch H. Inhibition of ultraviolet light induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice by apigenin, a plant flavonoid. Anticancer Res 1996;17:85-91.
Khole S, Panat NA, Suryawanshi P, Chatterjee S, Devasagayam T, Ghaskadbi S. Comprehensive Assessment of Antioxidant Activities of Apigenin Isomers: Vitexin and Isovitexin. Free Radicals & Antioxidants. 2016;6:155-66.
Ying C, Wan D. Quantitative determination of total and individual flavonoids in stems and leaves of Buddleja davidii
and Buddleja albiflora
. Pharmacogn Mag 2012;8:273.
Chen JH, Ho CT. Antioxidant activities of caffeic acid and its related hydroxycinnamic acid compounds. J Agric Food Chem 1997;45:2374-8.
Grunberger D, Banerjee R, Eisinger K, Oltz EM, Efros L, Caldwell M, et al
. Preferential cytotoxicity on tumor cells by caffeic acid phenethyl ester isolated from propolis. Experientia 1988;44:230-2.
dos Santos MD, Almeida MC, Lopes NP, de Souza GE. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the natural polyphenol chlorogenic acid. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:2236-40.
Huang MT, Smart RC, Wong CQ, Conney AH. Inhibitory effect of curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid on tumor promotion in mouse skin by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Cancer Res 1988;48:5941-6.
Sato Y, Itagaki S, Kurokawa T, Ogura J, Kobayashi M, Hirano T, et al
and in vivo
antioxidant properties of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. Int J Pharm 2011;403:136-8.
Onakpoya IJ, Spencer EA, Thompson MJ, Heneghan CJ. The effect of chlorogenic acid on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Hum Hypertens 2015;29:77-81.
Hönigsmann H, Jaschke E, Gschnait F, Brenner W, Fritsch P, Wolff K. 5-Methoxypsoralen (Bergapten) in photochemotherapy of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1979;101:369-78.
Santoro M, Guido C, De Amicis F, Sisci D, Cione E, Vincenza D, et al
. Bergapten induces metabolic reprogramming in breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep 2016;35:568-76.
Sumiyoshi M, Sakanaka M, Taniguchi M, Baba K, Kimura Y. Anti-tumor effects of various furocoumarins isolated from the roots, seeds and fruits of Angelica and Cnidium species under ultraviolet A irradiation. J Nat Med 2014;68:83-94.
Cao Y, Zhong YH, Yuan M, Li H, Zhao CJ. Inhibitory effect of imperatorin and isoimperatorin on activity of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human and rat liver microsomes. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2013;38:1237-41.
Koenigs LL, Trager WF. Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 2B1 by 8-methoxypsoralen and several other furanocoumarins. Biochemistry 1998;37:13184-93.
Montagner C, de Souza SM, Groposoa C, Delle Monache F, Smânia EF, Smânia A Jr. Antifungal activity of coumarins. Z Naturforsch C 2008;63:21-8.
de Souza SM, Delle Monache F, Smânia A Jr. Antibacterial activity of coumarins. Z Naturforsch C 2005;60:693-700.
Lino C, Taveira M, Viana G, Matos F. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of Justicia pectoralis
Jacq and its main constituents: Coumarin and umbelliferone. Phytother Res 1997;11:211-5.
Ramesh B, Pugalendi KV. Antioxidant role of umbelliferone in STZ-diabetic rats. Life Sci 2006;79:306-10.
Subramaniam SR, Ellis EM. Neuroprotective effects of umbelliferone and esculetin in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci Res 2013;91:453-61.
Pochapski MT, Fosquiera EC, Esmerino LA, Dos Santos EB, Farago PV, Santos FA, et al
. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves' extract from Ipomoea batatas
(L.) Lam. Pharmacogn Mag 2011;7:165-70.
Cotte M, Dumas P, Besnard M, Tchoreloff P, Walter P. Synchrotron FT-IR microscopic study of chemical enhancers in transdermal drug delivery: example of fatty acids. J Control Release 2004;97:269-81.
Shukla S, Mishra T, Pal M, Meena B, Rana TS, Upreti DK. Comparative analysis of fatty acids and antioxidant activity of Betula utilis
bark collected from different geographical region of India. Free Radic Antioxid 2017;7:80.
Pu Z-H, Zhang Y-Q, Yin Z-Q, Jiao X, Jia R-Y, Yang L, et al
. Antibacterial activity of 9-octadecanoic acid-hexadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3, 4-diyl ester from neem oil. Agric Sci China 2010;9:1236-40.
Bergamo P, Luongo D, Miyamoto J, Cocca E, Kishino S, Ogawa J, et al
. Immunomodulatory activity of a gut microbial metabolite of dietary linoleic acid, 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, associated with improved antioxidant/detoxifying defences. J Funct Foods 2014;11:192-202.
Favre J, Yildirim C, Leyen TA, Chen WJ, van Genugten RE, van Golen LW, et al
. Palmitic acid increases pro-oxidant adaptor protein p66Shc expression and affects vascularization factors in angiogenic mononuclear cells: Action of resveratrol. Vascul Pharmacol 2015;75:7-18.
Tholstrup T, Marckmann P, Jespersen J, Sandström B. Fat high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in comparison with fats high in palmitic acid or high in myristic and lauric acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:371-7.
Serce S, Ercisli S, Sengul M, Gunduz K, Orhan E. Antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of wild grown myrtle (Myrtus communis
L.) fruits. Pharmacogn Mag 2010;6:9-12.
Lim JH, Gerhart-Hines Z, Dominy JE, Lee Y, Kim S, Tabata M, et al
. Oleic acid stimulates complete oxidation of fatty acids through protein kinase A-dependent activation of SIRT1-PGC1a complex. J Biol Chem 2013;288:7117-26.
Ramsden CE, Zamora D, Leelarthaepin B, Majchrzak-Hong SF, Faurot KR, Suchindran CM, et al
. Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis. BMJ 2013;346:e8707.
Deore SL, Khadabadi SS. Isolation and characterization of phytoconstituents from Chlorophytum borivilianum
. Pharmacognosy Res 2010;2:343-9.
Hu FQ, Liu LN, Du YZ, Yuan H. Synthesis and antitumor activity of doxorubicin conjugated stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide polymeric micelles. Biomaterials 2009;30:6955-63.
Lima NG, De Sousa DP, Pimenta FC, Alves MF, De Souza FS, Macedo RO, et al
. Anxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2013;103:450-4.
Vandresen F, Falzirolli H, Almeida Batista SA, da Silva-Giardini AP, de Oliveira DN, Catharino RR, et al
. Novel R-(+)-limonene-based thiosemicarbazones and their antitumor activity against human tumor cell lines. Eur J Med Chem 2014;79:110-6.
de Sousa DP, Mesquita RF, de Araújo Ribeiro LA, de Lima JT. Spasmolytic activity of carvone and limonene enantiomers. Nat Prod Commun 2015;10:1893-6.
Peixoto MG, Costa-Júnior LM, Blank AF, Lima Ada S, Menezes TS, Santos Dde A, et al
. Acaricidal activity of essential oils from Lippia alba
genotypes and its major components carvone, limonene, and citral against Rhipicephalus microplus
. Vet Parasitol 2015;210:118-22.
Alves J, Mantovani A, Martins M, Abrao F, Lucarini R, Crotti A, et al
. Antimycobacterial activity of some commercially available plant-derived essential oils. Chem Nat Comp 2015;51:353-5.
Muthumperumal C, Stalin N, Das AK, Swamy PS. Chemical profiling of leaf essential oil, antioxidant potential and antibacterial activity of Syzygium lanceolatum
(Lam.) Wt. & Arn. (Myrtaceae). Free Radic Antioxid 2016;6:13.
Hsieh SL, Chen CT, Wang JJ, Kuo YH, Li CC, Hsieh LC, et al
. Sedanolide induces autophagy through the PI3K, p53 and NF-κB signaling pathways in human liver cancer cells. Int J Oncol 2015;47:2240-6.
Woods JA, Jewell C, O'Brien NM. Sedanolide, a natural phthalide from celery seed oil: effect on hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced toxicity in HepG2 and CaCo-2 human cell lines. In Vitr Mol Toxicol 2001;14:233-40.
Mišić D, Zizovic I, Stamenić M, Ašanin R, Ristić M, Petrović SD, Skala D. Antimicrobial activity of celery fruit isolates and SFE process modeling. Biochem Eng J 2008;42:148-52.
de Sousa DP, Quintans L Jr., de Almeida RN. Evolution of the anticonvulsant activity of α-terpineol. Pharm Biol 2007;45:69-70.
Carson CF, Riley TV. Antimicrobial activity of the major components of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia
. J Appl Bacteriol 1995;78:264-9.
Burits M, Bucar F. Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa
essential oil. Phytother Res 2000;14:323-8.
Zhou H, Tao N, Jia L. Antifungal activity of citral, octanal and α-terpineol against Geotrichum
citri-aurantii. Food Control 2014;37:277-83.
Saraswati S, Kanaujia P, Agrawal S. OP-03 α-santalol demonstrates antitumor and antiantiangiogenic activities in models of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro
and in vivo
. Dig Liver Dis 2013;45:S249-50.
Saraswati S, Kumar S, Alhaider AA. a-santalol inhibits the angiogenesis and growth of human prostate tumor growth by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway. Mol Cancer 2013;12:147.
Juteau F, Masotti V, Bessière JM, Dherbomez M, Viano J. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia annua
essential oil. Fitoterapia 2002;73:532-5.
Arruda DC, D'Alexandri FL, Katzin AM, Uliana SR. Antileishmanial activity of the terpene nerolidol. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005;49:1679-87.
Braca A, Siciliano T, D'Arrigo M, Germanò MP. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia
seed essential oil. Fitoterapia 2008;79:123-5.
da Silva AC, Lopes PM, de Azevedo MM, Costa DC, Alviano CS, Alviano DS. Biological activities of a-pinene and ß-pinene enantiomers. Molecules 2012;17:6305-16.
Tepe B, Daferera D, Sokmen A, Sokmen M, Polissiou M. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia tomentosa
Miller (Lamiaceae). Food Chem 2005;90:333-40.
Sela F, Karapandzova M, Stefkov G, Cvetkovikj I, Kulevanova S. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Juniperus excelsa
) grown in R. Macedonia. Pharmacognosy Res 2015;7:74-80.
Lee J-H, Lee K, Shin SY, Yong Y, Lee YH. Anti-invasive effect of β-myrcene, a component of the essential oil from Pinus koraiensis
cones, in metastatic MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 2015;58:563-9.
Ciftci O, Ozdemir I, Tanyildizi S, Yildiz S, Oguzturk H. Antioxidative effects of curcumin, ß-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver. Toxicol Ind Health 2011;27:447-53.
Bonamin F, Moraes TM, Dos Santos RC, Kushima H, Faria FM, Silva MA, et al
. The effect of a minor constituent of essential oil from Citrus aurantium
: The role of ß-myrcene in preventing peptic ulcer disease. Chem Biol Interact 2014;212:11-9.
Ciftci O, Oztanir MN, Cetin A. Neuroprotective effects of β-myrcene following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-mediated oxidative and neuronal damage in a C57BL/J6 mouse. Neurochem Res 2014;39:1717-23.
Lans CA. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2006;2:45.
Kerishchi P, Nasri S, Amin G, Tabibian M. The effects of Apium graveolens
extract on sperm parameters and HG hormonal axis in mice. In Proceedings of the 20th
Iranian Congress of Physiology and Pharmacology; 2011.
Hamza AA, Amin A. Apium graveolens
modulates sodium valproate-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol 2007;307:199-206.
Hardani A, Afzalzadeh MR, Amirzargar A, Mansouri E, Meamar Z. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens
L.) leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Avicenna J Phytomed 2015;5:113-9.
Ahmed B, Alam T, Varshney M, Khan SA. Hepatoprotective activity of two plants belonging to the Apiaceae
and the Euphorbiaceae
family. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79:313-6.
Abd El-Mageed NM. Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats. Pharmacogn Mag 2011;7:151-6.
Jung W, Chung I, Kim S, Kim M, Ahmad A, Praveen N.In vitro
antioxidant activity, total phenolics and flavonoids from celery (Apium graveolens
) leaves. J Med Plant Res 2011;5:7022-30.
Momin RA, Nair MG. Antioxidant, cyclooxygenase and topoisomerase inhibitory compounds from Apium graveolens
Linn. seeds. Phytomedicine 2002;9:312-8.
Popovic M, Kaurinovic B, Trivic S, Mimica-Dukic N, Bursa. Effect of celery (Apium graveolens
) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride. Phytother Res 2006;20:531-7.
Kumar S, Mishra M, Wahab N, Warikoo R. Larvicidal, repellent, and irritant potential of the seed-derived essential oil of Apium graveolens
against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti
). Front Public Health 2014;2:147.
Choochote W, Tuetun B, Kanjanapothi D, Rattanachanpichai E, Chaithong U, Chaiwong P, et al
. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens
L. against the mosquito Aedes aegypti
). J Vector Ecol 2004;29:340-6.
Tuetun B, Choochote W, Kanjanapothi D, Rattanachanpichai E, Chaithong U, Chaiwong P, et al
. Repellent properties of celery, Apium graveolens
L. compared with commercial repellents, against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions. Trop Med Int Health 2005;10:1190-8.
Roghani M, Baluchnejadmojarad T, Amin A, Amirtouri R. The effect of administration of Apium graveolens
aqueous extract on the serum levels of glucose and lipids of diabetic rats. Iran J Endocrinol Metab 2007;9:177-81.
Mencherini T, Cau A, Bianco G, Loggia RD, Aquino R. An extract of Apium graveolens
var. dulce leaves: Structure of the major constituent, apiin, and its anti-inflammatory properties. J Pharm Pharmacol 2007;59:891-7.
Lewis DA, Tharib SM, Veitch GB. The anti-inflammatory activity of celery Apium graveolens
L.(Fam. Umbelliferae). Int J Crude Drug Res 1985;23:27-32.
Naema NF, Dawood B, Hassan S. A study of some Iraqi medicinal plants for their spasmolytic and; antibacterial activities. J Basrah Res (Sci) 2010;36:67-8.
Atta AH, Alkofahi A. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;60:117-24.
Jakovljevic V, Raskovic A, Popovic M, Sabo J. The effect of celery and parsley juices on pharmacodynamic activity of drugs involving cytochrome P450 in their metabolism. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2002;27:153-6.
Al-Howiriny T, Alsheikh A, Alqasoumi S, Al-Yahya M, ElTahir K, Rafatullah S. Gastric antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties of celery (Apium graveolens
) in rats. Pharm Biol 2010;48:786-93.
Gharib Naseri MK, Pilehvaran AA, Shamansouri N. Investigating the spasmolytic activity of celery (Apium graveolens
) leaf hydroalcoholic extract on rat's ileum. Kaums J 2007;11:1-7.
Kooti W, Mansouri E, Ghasemiboroon M, Harizi M, Amirzargar A. Protective effects of celery (Apium graveolens
) on testis and cauda epididymal spermatozoa in rat. Iran J Reprod Med 2014;12:365-6.
Madkour NK. Beneficial role of celery oil in lowering the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular damage. Toxicol Ind Health 2014;30:861-72.
Kooti W, Ghasemiboroon M, Asadi-Samani M, Ahangarpoor A, Zamani M, Amirzargar A, et al
. The effect of halcoholic extract of celery leaves on the delivery rate (fertilization and stillbirths), the number, weight and sex ratio of rat off spring. Adv Environ Biol 2014;1:824-31.
Teng C, Lee L, Ko F, Huang T. Inhibition of platelet-aggregation by apigenin from apium-graveolens. Asia Pac J Pharmacol 1988;3:85-9.
Kooti W, Ghasemiboroon M, Asadi-Samani M, Ahangarpoor A, Zamani M, Amirzargar A, et al
. The effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of celery on lipid profile of rats fed a high fat diet. Adv Environ Biol 2014;6:325-31.
Tsi D, Das NP, Tan BK. Effects of aqueous celery (Apium graveolens
) extract on lipid parameters of rats fed a high fat diet. Planta Med 1995;61:18-21.
Tsi D, Tan BK. The mechanism underlying the hypocholesterolaemic activity of aqueous celery extract, its butanol and aqueous fractions in genetically hypercholesterolaemic RICO rats. Life Sci 2000;66:755-67.
Ko FN, Huang TF, Teng CM. Vasodilatory action mechanisms of apigenin isolated from Apium graveolens
in rat thoracic aorta. Biochim Biophys Acta 1991;1115:69-74.
Zhang J, Peng X, Wei G, Su D. NBPA: A cerebral ischaemic protective agent. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1999;26:845-6.
Kolarovic J, Popovic M, Mikov M, Mitic R, Gvozdenovic L. Protective effects of celery juice in treatments with Doxorubicin. Molecules 2009;14:1627-38.
Kooti W, Ali-Akbari S, Asadi-Samani M, Ghadery H, Ashtary-Larky D. A review on medicinal plant of Apium graveolens
. Adv Herb Med 2014;1:48-59.