|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 20 | Page : 105-108
Review of neuro-nutrition used as anti-alzheimer plant, spinach Spinacia oleracea
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
|Date of Web Publication||14-Nov-2016|
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Neuro-nutrition is the nutrition needed to achieve health brain and neurocognitive function. Diets rich in antioxidants, vitamins, flavonoids, and polyphenolic compounds will help suppress the onset of Alzheimer's disease. Spinacia oleracea (Family: Amaranthaceae) commonly known as spinach or Buai Leng (in Thai), one of the traditional medicinal plants with high in those mention nutrients. The micronutrients in spinach include a range of vitamins and minerals, which can prevent deficiency diseases and are essential for normal physiological function. Its phytochemicals are carotenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds, which can prevent chronic health problems, as well as other diseases associated with aging. The objective of this article was to conduct a review on various ethnomedicinal uses of the spinach and its influences on the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease based on a literature review.
Keywords: Alzheimer, herb, neuro-nutrition, plant, spinach, Spinacia oleracea
|How to cite this article:|
Jiraungkoorskul W. Review of neuro-nutrition used as anti-alzheimer plant, spinach Spinacia oleracea. Phcog Rev 2016;10:105-8
| Introduction|| |
Popeye, the popular cartoon sailor man, who famously attributed his strength after his consumption of spinach. This dark green leafy vegetable, Spinacia oleracea (SO), referred as “power food” is packed with essential nutrients such as proteins, minerals, and vitamins., There is clear evidence that consumption of medicinal plants is beneficial to health. Moreover, recent studies with antioxidant substances indicate that can slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease., This review is an attempt to compile information on various ethnomedicinal uses of spinach for anti-Alzheimer's disease. This disease is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder which its causes and progression are still not well understood. Chan et al. assessed the epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in China, they reported that the prevalence was 1.8% and 2.6% at 65–69 years; 42.1% and 60.5% at 95–99 years in 1990 and 2010, respectively. The number of people with Alzheimer's disease in China was 1.93 million in 1990, 3.71 million in 2000, and progress to 5.69 million in 2010. They also suggested that the burden of dementia seemed to be increasing faster and need to tackle in low- and middle-income countries. Rao et al. reported Alzheimer's disease affecting more than 5 million Americans, a number estimated to increase to 7.7 million by 2030. The pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is largely represented by the neurotoxic events triggered by the β-amyloid cascade  and by cytoskeletal abnormalities subsequent to the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated Tau protein in neurons. These processes lead, respectively, to the formation of neuritic plaques or senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, oxidative and inflammatory processes, neurotransmitter disturbances, and cholinergic deficit, which are the pathological hallmarks of this disease. Thus, attempts to restore these features have been a rational target for drugs used to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Approaches to enhance cholinergic function have included stimulation of cholinergic receptors or prolonging the availability of acetylcholine released into the neuronal synaptic cleft by inhibiting the acetylcholine hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase. Currently available treatment, i.e. acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, i.e., rivastigmine, galantamine, and donepezil; and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist (memantine) contributes minimal impact on the disease and target late aspects of the disease. These drugs decelerate the progression of the disease, provide symptomatic relief, but fail to achieve a definite cure.
Natural products from medicinal plants have gained huge interests from researchers around the world for new drugs because of their positive bioactivity effects., The medicinal plants have been used to enhance cognitive function and to alleviate other symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease , such as Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Turmeric (Curcuma longa). Spinach is one of the most important antioxidant plants, usually consumed either fresh or frozen leaves. The 100 g of fresh spinach contain of ascorbic acid (13–53 mg), β-carotene (5626 µg), carotenoids (17.8 mg), flavonoids (1–4 mg), folate (194 µg), folic acid (194 µg), nitrate (31–117 mg), oxalate (400 mg), vitamin A (9377 IU), and minerals such as calcium (99 mg), magnesium (79 mg), and potassium (558 mg). The scientific classification of SOis following (Kingdom) Plantae; (Subkingdom) Tracheobionta; (Superdivision) Spermatophyta; (Division) Magnoliophyta; (Class) Magnoliopsida; (Subclass) Caryophyllidae; (Order) Caryophyllales; (Family) Amaranthaceae, formerly Chenopodiaceae; (Subfamily) Amaranthoideae; (Genus) Spinacia; (Species) SO L.
SOwas originated from the Central and Southwestern Asia and later was distributed widely in Europe, America, Africa, and Australia. The vernacular name of SOalso known as spinach (English), palang (Bengali), bo cai (Chinese), spinat (Deutsch), épinard (French), spinat (German), palak (Hindi), pinni (India), horenso (Indonesian), spinacio (Italian), horenso (Japanese), sigeumchi (Korean), bayam (Malaysian), espinafre (Portuguese), chhurika (Sanskrit), espinaca (Spanish), spenat (Swedish), pasalai (Tamil), mathubucchali (Telugu), Buai leng (Thai), ispanak (Turkish), and rau chan vit (Vietnamese).,
SOhas two varieties, one is the wavy or curly leaf [Figure 1], whereas the other is the flat leaf. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular-based, and varying in size from about 2–30 cm long and 1–15 cm broad. The larger leaves are at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm in diameter, maturing into a small, hard, dry, lumpy fruit cluster about 5–10 mm across containing several seeds .,,
| Phytochemical Substances|| |
The extracts of SOconsist of the important constituents of pharmacological activities. Phenolic compounds: The polyphenols isolated from this plant are ortho-coumaric acid, para-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid., Flavonoids: Various flavonoids isolated from this plant are apigenin, glucuronide, flavone, jaceidin, kaempferol, myricetin, methoxyflavone, patuletin, quercetin, and spinacetin., Carotenoids: The carotenoids isolated from this plant are lutein, β-carotene, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin., Vitamins: Spinach contains a high concentration of vitamin A, E, K, and C, and also folate, folic acid, and oxalic acid. Minerals: The minerals isolated from this plant are calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc.
SOis traditionally used for antianemia, antibacterial,,, anticonvulsant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antihyperlipidemic,, anti-inflammatory,, antioxidant,, antiulcer, and antiviral activities., It is also used in the prevention of nervous, hepatic,, and respiratory diseases.
There are still not many data available about the neuroprotective potential of this medicinal plant, SO. During the review searches were done on the scientific databases, i.e. Science Direct, Springer Link, PubMed, Google Scholar, and so on. Moreover, internet searches were undertaken on the search engine. Different combinations of keywords as well as synonyms for keywords were used during the searches.
Wang et al. have demonstrated that rats which received spinach-enriched diet have a significant reduction in the volume of infarction in the cerebral cortex, lower caspase-3 activity in the ischemic hemisphere, and an increase in poststroke locomotor activity. Those authors also postulated that besides antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be involved reducing brain damage.
Das and Guha  reported the treatment with SOextract (400 mg/kg body weight) decreased the locomotor activity, grip strength, increased pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, and also markedly altered pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure status in rats. They also mentioned SOincreased serotonin level and decreased both norepinephrine and dopamine levels in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, midbrain, and pons and medulla. The result suggested that SOexerts its central nervous system depressive effect on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure by modulating the monoamines in different brain areas.
Das and Guha  also reported the protective role of fresh, young, and healthy leaves of SO against the development of amygdala-kindled (AMK) experimental epileptogenesis. Thirty-six rats were equally divided into (1) control, (2) 400 mg/kg of SO, (3) AMK, (4) SO + AMK, and (5) diazepam + AMK group, oral treated one daily for 14 consecutive days. The afterdischarge duration (ADD) was used as index of kindled seizures. In AMK group, seizure stages reached up to stage 4–5 within the 2nd week. Electroencephalographic tracings showed that pretreatment with SO in AMK group decreased the ADD and seizure stages of SO pretreated rats were limited within stage 1–2 from 1st to 4th week of kindling. The brain monoamine content of serotonin was decreased in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, midbrain, and pons-medulla of AMK group which was increased by SO pretreatment. Alteration of dopamine and norepinephrine in different brain regions of AMK group was also modulated by SO pretreatment. Thus, the authors summarized SO pretreatment retards the development of AMK epilepsy in experimental animals by modulating behavioral and neurochemical aspects.
Moreover, Sharma et al. studied the possible neuroprotective mechanism of SOagainst lipopolysaccharide, a bacterial endotoxin, induce neurodegenerative disease by injected intraperitoneally (5 mg/kg) in mice. They found that lipopolysaccharide produced symptoms as impaired motor functions, total locomotor activity, catalepsy and rotarod, increased oxidative burden, enhanced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and decreased dopamine turnover in striatum. However, spinach leaf extract (50 mg/kg) administration intraperitoneally for 21 days significantly attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical, and cellular alterations.
SOpossesses the anti-Alzheimer effect using multiple mechanisms. From the literature reviews that can be summarized these mechanisms as following:
Improvement of cognition
The Vitamin B plays a particular role in the memory healing diet. It helps synthesize and regulate the neurotransmitter, which can protect cognitive decline. The study of more than 200 women found that a diet high in folate and vitamin B6, such as that found in spinach and other dark leafy greens, helped improve mental ability and short-term memory.
It was found that the intake of antioxidant-rich diet is effective in reducing the deleterious effects of aging and behavior. It suggested that the combination of polyphenolic compounds found in spinach may show efficacy in Alzheimer's disease.
Protection against senile plaques
Flavonoids, i.e., kaempferol, apigenin, luteolin, and quercetin significantly lowered the β-amyloid-induced neuronal death and increase in reactive oxygen species production. Hence, the flavonoids-rich spinach is able to protect Alzheimer's disease against β-amyloid peptides and/or oxidative stress-induced toxicities.
One of the currently available drugs is rivastigmine, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Hence, the natural plants, which show anticholinesterase activities, will be the candidates for anti-Alzheimer's disease. Boga et al. found the high amount of anticholinesterase activities from the dichloromethane, ethanol, and water extracts of spinach.
| Conclusion|| |
It was suggested that an increase in acetylcholine in the hippocampus may be the neurochemicals basis for improved learning and memory. The other mechanism is a neurogenic growth promoter that will increase in survival, growth, and development of the newborn neurons, critical for the repair, and restoration of the normal neural circuitry in various diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease. The present article reviews that SOmay also be the anti-Alzheimer's plant.
This review article was funded in part by the Thailand Research Fund and the Commission on Higher Education: Research Grant for Mid-Career University Faculty. Thanks should be addressed to the members of the Fish Research Unit, Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University for their support. The author also many thanks to anonymous reviewers and editor for their perceptive comments on, and positive criticism of this review article.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Segheloo AE, Gharneh HA, Mohebodini M, Janmohammadi M, Nouraein M, Sabaghnia N. The use of some morphological traits for the assessment of genetic diversity in spinach (Spinacia oleracea
L.) landraces. Plant Breed Seed Sci 2014;69:69-80.
Tehseen M, Hina S, Nisa A, Ahmad A. Antioxidant potential of differently irrigated soil grown varieties of spinach. World Appl Sci J 2014;32:1235-41.
Feng Y, Wang X. Antioxidant therapies for Alzheimer's disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2012;2012:17.
Nascimento NL, Costa IH, Freitas RM. Nutritional aspects and their influences on the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review. Rev Cienc Med 2014;23:33-40.
Ye X, Tai W, Zhang D. The early events of Alzheimer's disease pathology: From mitochondrial dysfunction to BDNF axonal transport deficits. Neurobiol Aging 2012;33:1122.e1-1122.e10.
Chan KY, Wang W, Wu JJ, Liu L, Theodoratou E, Car J, et al
. Epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in China, 1990-2010: A systematic review and analysis. Lancet 2013;381:2016-23.
Rao RV, Descamps O, John V, Bredesen DE. Ayurvedic medicinal plants for Alzheimer's disease: A review. Alzheimers Res Ther 2012;4:22.
Dong S, Duan Y, Hu Y, Zhao Z. Advances in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease: A re-evaluation of amyloid cascade hypothesis. Transl Neurodegener 2012;1:18.
Mietelska-Porowska A, Wasik U, Goras M, Filipek A, Niewiadomska G. Tau protein modifications and interactions: Their role in function and dysfunction. Int J Mol Sci 2014;15:4671-713.
Aprahamian I, Stella F, Forlenza OV. New treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease: Is there a hope? Indian J Med Res 2013;138:449-60.
Mehta M, Adem A, Sabbagh M. New acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. Int J Alzheimers Dis 2012;2012:728983.
Ferris S, Karantzoulis S, Somogyi M, Meng X. Rivastigmine in moderately severe-to-severe Alzheimer's disease: Severe Impairment Battery factor analysis. Alzheimers Res Ther 2013;5:63.
Prins ND, van der Flier WA, Knol DL, Fox NC, Brashear HR, Nye JS, et al.
The effect of galantamine on brain atrophy rate in subjects with mild cognitive impairment is modified by apolipoprotein E genotype: Post-hoc
analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. Alzheimers Res Ther 2014;6:47.
Andersen F, Viitanen M, Halvorsen DS, Straume B, Wilsgaard T, Engstad TA. The effect of stimulation therapy and donepezil on cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease. A community based RCT with a two-by-two factorial design. BMC Neurol 2012;12:59.
Atri A, Molinuevo JL, Lemming O, Wirth Y, Pulte I, Wilkinson D. Memantine in patients with Alzheimer's disease receiving donepezil: New analyses of efficacy and safety for combination therapy. Alzheimers Res Ther 2013;5:6.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Donepezil, Galantamine, Rivastigmine and Memantine for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. NICE Technology Appraisal Guidance 217, UK; 2011.
Sasidharan S, Chen Y, Saravanan D, Sundram KM, Yoga Latha L. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2011;8:1-10.
Venkat RR, Vijay KR, Krishna RM. A short review of medicinal plants with their families. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;3:634-52.
Su Y, Wang Q, Wang C, Chan K, Sun Y, Kuang H. The treatment of Alzheimer's disease using Chinese medicinal plants: From disease models to potential clinical applications. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;152:403-23.
Sehgal N, Gupta A, Valli RK, Joshi SD, Mills JT, Hamel E, et al. Withania somnifera
reverses Alzheimer's disease pathology by enhancing low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:3510-5.
Kunte KB, Kuna Y. Neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monniera
on memory deficits and ATPase system in Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced mice. J Sci Innov Res 2013;2:719-35.
Alquraini A, Waggas D, Bohlke M, Maher T, Figueroa AP. Neuroprotective effects of Lepidium meyenii
(Maca) and macamides against amyloid-beta induced toxicity in B-35 neuroblastoma cells. J Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 2014;28:S657.13.
Ahmed T, Gilani AH. Therapeutic potential of turmeric in Alzheimer's disease: Curcumin or curcuminoids? Phytother Res 2014;28:517-25.
Koh E, Charoenprasert S, Mitchell AE. Effect of organic and conventional cropping systems on ascorbic acid, Vitamin C, flavonoids, nitrate, and oxalate in 27 varieties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea
L.). J Agric Food Chem 2012;60:3144-50.
Subhash GP, Virbhadrappa SR, Vasant OK. Spinacia oleracea
Linn: A pharmacognostic and pharmacological overview. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2010;1:78-84.
Rao KN, Tabassum B, Babu SR, Yaja A, Banji D. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Spinacia oleracea
L. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;4:532-51.
Nayak AK, Pal D, Pany DR, Mohanty B. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea
L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2010;1:338-41.
Mane PC, Kadam DD, Chaudhari RD, Varpe KA, Sarogade SD, Thorat VT, et al
. Phytochemical investigations of Spinacia oleracea
: An important leafy vegetable used in Indian diet. Cent Eur J Exp Biol 2015;4:1-4.
Dande PR, Sharma GM, Sharma RM, Chakraborthy GS. Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Spinacia oleracea
Linn. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2010;1:41-6.
Metha D, Belemkar S. Pharmacological activity of Spinacia oleracea
Linn. – A complete overview. Asian J Pharm Res Dev 2014;2:32-42.
Bunea A, Andjelkovic M, Socaciu C, Bobis O, Neacsu M, Verhe R, et al
. Total and individual carotenoids and phenolic acids content in fresh, refrigerated and processed spinach (Spinacia oleracea
L.). Food Chem 2008;108:649-56.
Harris PJ, Trethewey JA. The distribution of ester-linked ferulic acid in the cell walls of angiosperms. Phytochem Rev 2010;9:19-33.
Dehkharghanian M, Adenier H, Vijayalakshmi MA. Study of flavonoids in aqueous spinach extract using positive electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. Food Chem 2010;121:863-70.
Morishita Y, Saito E, Takemura E, Fujikawa R, Yamamoto R, Kuroyanagi M, et al
. Flavonoid glucuronides isolated from spinach inhibit IgE mediated degranulation in basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. Integr Mol Med 2015;2:99-105.
Jaswir I, Noviendri D, Hasrini RF, Octavianti F. Carotenoids: Sources, medicinal properties and their application in food and nutraceutical industry. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:7119-31.
Jaime L, Vázquez E, Fornari T, López-Hazas Mdel C, García-Risco MR, Santoyo S, et al.
Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea
L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction. J Sci Food Agric 2015;95:722-9.
Shohag MJ, Wei YY, Yu N, Zhang J, Wang K, Patring J, et al.
Natural variation of folate content and composition in spinach (Spinacia oleracea
) germplasm. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:12520-6.
Luka CD, Abdulkarim M, Adoga GI, Tijjani H, Olatunde A. Anti-anaemic potential of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea
leaf in phenyhydrazine-treated rats. N Y Sci J 2014;7:14-8.
Kanchana A, Agarwal I, Sunkar S, Nellore J, Namasivayam K. Biogenic silver nanoparticles from Spinacia oleracea
and Lactuca sativa
and their potential antimicrobial activity. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 2011;6:1741-50.
Nasim FH, Andleeb S, Iqbal M, Ghous T, Khan AN, Akhtar K. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts of fresh and spoiled Spinacia oleracea
against some mammalian pathogens. Afr J Microbiol Res 2012;6:5847-51.
Das MP, Chatterjee S. Evaluation of antibacterial potential of Spinacia oleracea
L. against urinary tract pathogens. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2013;23:211-5.
Das S, Guha D. CNS depressive role of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea
L. leaves in adult male albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2008;46:185-90.
Kumar NJ, Loganathan P. Hypoglycemic effect of Spinacia oleracea
in alloxan induced diabetic rat. Glob J Biotechnol Biochem 2010;5:87-91.
Patil UK, Dave S, Bhaiji A, Baghel US, Yadav SK, Sharma VK. In-vitro
anthelmintic activity of leaves of Spinacia oleracae
Linn. Int J Toxicol Pharmacol Res 2009;1:21-3.
Giri PK, Kanungo SK, Tripathi NK. Hypolipidemic activity of Spinacia oleracea
L. in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. J Biomed Pharm Res 2012;1:39-43.
Ko SH, Park JH, Kim SY, Lee SW, Chun SS, Park E. Antioxidant effects of spinach (Spinacia oleracea
L.) supplementation in hyperlipidemic rats. Prev Nutr Food Sci 2014;19:19-26.
Garg VK, Jain M, Sharma PK, Garg G. Anti-inflammatory activity of Spinacia oleracea
. Int J Pharm Prof Res 2010;1:1-4.
Aslam M, Sultana B, Ali S, Rehman K. Alteration in antioxidant potential of Spinacia oleracea
in response to selected plant growth regulators. Pak J Agric Sci 2013;50:699-706.
Kore Kakasaheb K, Shete Rajkumar V, Patel Apsari J, Kulkarni Jitendra B. Antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracia
in rats. Int J Res Pharm Chem 2011;1:654-61.
Adam G, Mundry KW, Straub P. Isolation and characterization of a virus inhibitor from spinach (Spinacia oleracea
L.). J Phytopathol 2008;115:357-67.
Yang J, Jin GH, Wang R, Luo ZP, Yin QS, Jin LF, et al
. Spinacia oleracea
proteins with antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus. Afr J Biotechnol 2012;11:6802-8.
Jain NK, Singhai AK. Ameliorative effects of Spinacia oleracea
L. seeds on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4
) – Induced hepatotoxicity: In vitro
and in vivo
studies. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:S232-7.
Maximas HR, Sudha PN, Sudhakar K. A study on the hepatoprotective activities of methanol extact of Spinacia oleracea
(Linn.) to the induced hepatotoxicity in wistar rat models. Int J Pharm Res Health Sci 2014;2:287-301.
Heo JC, Park CH, Lee HJ, Kim SO, Kim TH, Lee SH. Amelioration of asthmatic inflammation by an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea
Linn. Int J Mol Med 2010;25:409-14.
Wang Y, Chang CF, Chou J, Chen HL, Deng X, Harvey BK, et al.
Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage. Exp Neurol 2005;193:75-84.
Das S, Guha D. Spinacia oleracea
retards the development of amygdala kindled epilepsy in rats. Al Ameen J Med Sci 2011;4:175-90.
Sharma N, Kapoor M, Nehru B. Spinacea oleracea
L. extract protects against LPS induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and ensuing biochemical, neurochemical and neurobehavioral impairment in mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:203-10.
Kim H, Kim G, Jang W, Kim SY, Chang N. Association between intake of B vitamins and cognitive function in elderly Koreans with cognitive impairment. Nutr J 2014;13:118.
Aisen PS, Schneider LS, Sano M, Diaz-Arrastia R, van Dyck CH, Weiner MF, et al.
High-dose B vitamin supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008;300:1774-83.
Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Current understanding of dietary polyphenols and their role in health and disease. Curr Nutr Food Sci 2009;5:249-63.
Ramesh BN, Rao TS, Prakasam A, Sambamurti K, Rao KS. Neuronutrition and Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis 2010;19:1123-39.
Schmitt-Schillig S, Schaffer S, Weber CC, Eckert GP, Müller WE. Flavonoids and the aging brain. J Physiol Pharmacol 2005;56 Suppl 1:23-36.
Boga M, Hacibekiroglu I, Kolak U. Antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of eleven edible plants. Pharm Biol 2011;49:290-5.
| Authors|| |
Wannee Jiraungkoorskul , is currently working as Assistant Professor in Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand. She received her B.Sc. in Medical Technology, M.Sc. in Physiology, and Ph.D. in Biology. Dr. Wannee Jiraungkoorskul's current research interests are aquatic toxicopathology and efficiency of medicinal herbs.