Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Login 
Pharmacognosy Reviews
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 14  |  Page : 140-151  

Onosma L.: A review of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology


1 Department of Pharmacy, Shri Ram Murti Smarak College of Engineering and Technology, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pharmacy, M. J. P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission04-Apr-2013
Date of Decision10-May-2013
Date of Acceptance25-Oct-2013
Date of Web Publication25-Oct-2013

Correspondence Address:
Neeraj Kumar
Department of Pharmacy, Shri Ram Murti Smarak College of Engineering and Technology, Nainital Road, Bareilly - 243 202, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.120513

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

The genus Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) includes about 150 species distributed world-wide in which only about 75 plants has been described for its morphology and less than 10 plants for their chemical constituents and clinical potential. The phytochemical reports of this genus revels that it comprise mainly aliphatic ketones, lipids, naphthazarins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, naphthoquinones, flavones while most important are shikonins and onosmins. The plants are traditionally used as laxative, anthelmintic and for alexipharmic effects. The plants are also equally use in eye, blood diseases, bronchitis, abdominal pain, stangury, thirst, itch, lecoderma, fever, wounds, burns, piles and urinary calculi. The flowers of various plants are prescribed as stimulants, cardiotonic, in body swelling while leaves are used as purgative and in cutaneous eruptions. The roots are used for coloring food stuffs, oils and dying wool and in medicinal preparations. This review emphasizes the distribution, morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnopharmacology, which may help in future research.

Keywords: Alkannin, hispidone, naphthoquinones, Ratanjot, shikonin


How to cite this article:
Kumar N, Kumar R, Kishore K. Onosma L.: A review of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology. Phcog Rev 2013;7:140-51

How to cite this URL:
Kumar N, Kumar R, Kishore K. Onosma L.: A review of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology. Phcog Rev [serial online] 2013 [cited 2018 Jan 21];7:140-51. Available from: http://www.phcogrev.com/text.asp?2013/7/14/140/120513


   Introduction Top


The genus Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) represents about 150 known species in Asia [1] including 29 species in China, [2] 95 species in Turkey [3] and 8 in Pakistan, [4] but recent studies and revisions have increased the number of species in this genus to over 230 species. [5] The name onosma for this genus was introduced into modern botanical nomenclature by Linnaeus, which is derived from a Latin word "osma" originated from a Greek word, "osma" means smell. [6] All species grow in dry or moist and sunny habitats usually in rock crevices and popularly known as rock garden plants. [3]

Onosma L. is a species-rich genus with complicated patterns of morphological, karyological variation and taxonomic treatments within the groups of this genus are highly controversial. Many similar species were described based on minor morphological differences and consequently they have often been confused. In addition, in the European area, their distribution is rather fragmented and classifications have often been done on the basis of geographically limited studies, [7] which appears to be partly artificial and there is a need for re-investigation that new data may provide useful reference in a future classification. [3] According to "The Plant List" of Royal Botanic Garden, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden, includes 387 scientific plants names of species rank for this genus in which only 37 are accepted species names and further 19 scientific plant names are of infra-specific rank. This list also shows that only 9.6% names are accepted and 6.2% names are synonyms while 84.2% names are still un-assessed.


   Distribution Top


Onosma L. includes numerous species distributed in Asia, Eurasia, Mediterranean regions and Europe mainly in Iran, Syria, Turkey, China, Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka, etc., This genus has been divided into three sections named as Onosma, Protonosma and Podonosma while section Onosma was further divided into two subsections as asterotricha (Boiss.) Gurke and Haplotricha (Boiss.) Gurke. [3],[8] In flora Iranica region, 39 species growing in Iran [9] while Anatolia is an important center of origin for Onosma comprising about 95 species, 48 of which and one verity are endemic for Turkey. [10]

In Switzerland, genus Onosma is represented by two rare species inhabiting calcareous steppe meadows one is Onosma helvetica (A. DC.) Boissier located in Ollon (VD) ans in Haut-Valais and second is Onosma pseudoarenaria Schur distributed in central Valais. [11]

In Romania, Onosma visianii Clementi spread mostly in Dobrogea's barren places, steppe, on calcareous soils while Onosma setosum Ledeb., Onosma arenaria Waldst. et Kit., O. pseudoarenaria Schur and Onosma viride (Borb.) Jav. are endemic, spread in barren regions such as Cluj, Hunedoara and Ploiesti, Onosma taurica Pall. ex Willd. spread in stony, grassy, calcareous areas from Timisoara and Constanta. Teppner enumerates only Onosma heterophylla (sin. viride), Onosma helveticum Boiss. spread in Transylvania, Onosma lypskyi, O. visianii Clementi, O. taurica Pall. ex Willd., Onosma rigida Ledeb. spread in Dobrogea and O. arenaria Waldst. et Kit. spotted in the Danube Delta, without mentioning O. pseudoarenaria Schur. while in Transylvania that is the only existing species. [12]

Moreover, Johnston (1954) studied light microscopy of the pollens of 45 species of Onosma[13] and Qureshi and Qaiser (1987) studied pollen characteristics of 9 plants [14] while Maggi et al. (2009) studied pollen morphology of five Onosma species. [15] Binzet and Akcin (2011) also reported pollen characteristics of some Onosma species in Turkey [16] and recently Mehrabian et al. (2012) was done numerical analysis of pollen characteristics in 24 Onosma species growing in Iran and tries to evaluate the usefulness of the palynological data in the taxonomy of the genus and also use such data to illustrate the species affinity. [17]

The anatomical and ecological properties of some Onosma species were studied [18] by Akcin (2004), Akcin and Engin (2005). [19] Binzet and Orcan (2009) investigated the anatomical structure and palynological characteristics of Onosma roussaei DC. and Onosma giganteum Lam. [20] while chromosome numbers of different species of Onosma were reported by Teppner in 1981 and 1988. [21],[22] The nutlet micro morphologies of some Onosma species were also studied by Akcin in 2007. [23] The distribution of some species is summarized in [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of plants of genus Onosma L.

Click here to view



   Morphology Top


The genus Onosma L. contains biennial or perennial herbs, scabrous and leaves are petiolate or sessile with entire margin. Cymes are scorpioid and solitary at stem apex while branches forming a panicle, which are usually elongated in fruit, bracteate. Flowers are actinomorphic, pedicellate or sessile while calyx parted to or nearly to base with 5 lobes, linear or linear-lanceolate, equal and usually enlarged after anthesis. Corolla is blue, yellow, white or red in color, tubular with campanulate or retrorse with conical and usually gradually expanded from base upward, throat unappendaged while nectary are ring like or lobed with dentate margin. Anthers are coherent laterally into a tube or sagittate, which is pellucid and emarginated with sterile apex. Style is included or slightly exerted with capitate stigma. Gynobase is flat with 4 nutlets, erect, ovate-triangular, length and width subequal, adaxially ribbed and abaxially slightly convex, attached to basal scar. [2]

In addition to the setae with an enlarged base known for many genera of the Boraginaceae family, many species of Onosma have setae with usually 4-20 rays arising from the base, these are referred to as stellate setae. The central seta is occasionally absent from these hairs, but usually it is distinctly longer and stouter than the rays. The presence or absence of stellate setae is widely used as a major character in the genus, but in a number of species there may be a wide range of variation in the presence, frequency and length of the stellate setae. Petal morphology has major taxonomic importance and corolla color, shape and size are used as taxonomic characters in this genus. [24] However, detailed observations of the micromorphology and anatomy of petals of most of the Onosma species are lacking [25] as described in [Table 2]. The genus presents considerable taxonomic difficulties, particularly in central and south east Europe, which cannot be resolved without experimental investigation.
Table 2: Unresolved plants of genus Onosma L.

Click here to view



   Phytochemistry Top


The literature survey revealed that very little phytochemical work has been carried out on the genus Onosma L. and only some naphthaquinones, alkaloids and phenolic compounds have so far been reported. [83] Alkannins and Shikonins are chiral-pairs of naturally occurring isohexenylnaphthazarins, found in the external layer of the roots of many species that belongs mainly to the genera Alkanna, Lithospermum, Echium, Onosma and Arnebia of the Boraginaceae family [Table 3]. [84]
Table 3: Structures of some phytoconstituents found in genus Onosma L.

Click here to view


From the alkaloid extract of O. arenaria Waldst. and Kit. The uplandicine, a 1, 2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloid esterified with acetyl and echimidinyl moieties and its structure was confirmed by mass spectroscopy (Electron impact and positive Fast atom bombardment), 1H-and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Furthermore, nine minor alkaloids were identified on the basis of mass spectral data and/or Kovats retention indices. [1]

When roots of Onosma argentatum Hub.-Mor. were extracted with n-hexane-dichloromethane mixture (1:1), subjected to silica gel column chromatography and elution was performed with a n-hexane-ethyl acetate mixture with gradient elution, deoxyshikonin, acetyl shikonin, 3-hydroxy-isovaleryl shikonin, 5,8-O-dimethyl acetyl shikonin were obtained. [35],[88]

The Onosma bracteosum Hausskn. and Bornm. and Onosma thracicum Velen. Exhibits oleic and α-linolenic acids quantified at higher levels in endemic O. bracteosum while other fatty acids and α-tocopherol were observed at higher concentrations in O. thracicum. [10]

The study of Onosma echioides C. B. Clarke non Linn. showed an alkannin or shikonin content with naphthoquinone derivatives i.e. deoxyalkannin or deoxyshikonin and 5, 8-dihydroxy-2-(4-methyl-6-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) - [1,4] naphthoquinone and arnebin-6 were found and characterized in the extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) apparatus equipped with an Electro spray ionosat ionization source. [89] Volatile components obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of O. echioides L. var. columnae Lacaita were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-MS where 64 volatile components were identified, hexadecanoic acid and phytol were predominant in the flower oils while phytol and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone were the major components in the leaf oils. Alkanes, fatty acids and aldehydes constituted the major fraction in the flower oils while oxygenated diterpenes and ketones were predominant in the leaf oils. [15]

Onosmins A and B have been isolated from Onosma hispidum Wall. ex G. Don and their structures were established as 2-[(4-methylbenzyl) amino] benzoic acid and methyl 2-[(4-methylbenzyl) amino] benzoate through spectroscopic studies, including 2D-NMR. The known compounds are apigenin, 6, 4'- dimethoxy-3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-flavone, 6, 7-dimethoxy-3, 5,4' trihydroxy-flavone and apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside are also reported from this species. [85] In 2006, from its ethanolic extract of root bark, isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ferulic acid) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid (vanillic acid) was performed. [90] Hispidone, a new flavanone has been isolated and assigned the structure (2S)-5, 2'- dihydroxy-7, 4', 5' trimethoxy-flavanone by spectroscopic methods and in addition to this benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid are also reported from this species. [84]

Onosma paniculata Bureau and Franchet-HPLC analysis of the active petroleum ether-soluble extract pointed to several shikonin derivatives using preparative HPLC, seven fractions were collected from which β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin, acetylshikonin, dimethylacrylshikonin and a mixture of α-methylbutyrylshikonin and isovalerylshikonin was isolated [91] and a HPLC method using diode-array detection used for simultaneous quantification of eight naphthoquinone derivatives isolated from Onosma exsertum Hemsl., Onosma confertum W.W. Smith, Onosma hookerii Clarke var. longiflorum Duthie, O. hookerii Clarke and Onosma waltonii Duthic and these six species of Onosma are also used by peoples of Tibet and Yunnan, which contains various types and considerable amounts of naphthaquinones. [92]


   Ethnopharmacology Top


The plants of genus Onosma L. contains alkannin and shikonin, flavonoids, ferulic and vanillic acids, which may responsible for anti-inflammatory, wound healing, analgesic and its antibacterial actions. A study was showed that these phytochemicals have significant anti-inflammatory and anti-pain action without the gastric damage as caused by indomethacin. [87] The anticancer activity was reported in Onosma limitaneum[85] and antioxidant with antimicrobial activities in O. argentatum. [57]

The roots extract of O. argentatum Hub.-Mor. was investigated for their ability to stimulate the growth of human amnion fibroblasts, wound healing activities might be partly due to an additive effect of the shikonin derivatives. [88] The root extract also has spasmolytic and antipyretic activity. [93]

The roots extract of O. arenaria possess naphthazarin derivatives showed cytotoxicity on human cervix adenocarcinoma cells and leukemia K562 cells and in another study also showed that β-hydroxyisovalerylalkannin, acetylalkannin and the pigment fraction exhibited high cytotoxicity on non-malignant peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well on healthy PBMC activated by phytohaemagglutinin. [94] In an experimental study the Onosma armeniacum K. has shown to possess antiulcer and antioxidative properties. [95]

Aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of Auchers golden-drop (Onosma aucheriana) exhibited interesting antileishmanial activities on the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite also shown to induce nitrous oxide production by human macrophages. [36]

The effect of Onosma bracteatum Wall extract on degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells and cell inhibitory effect in immunologically induced degranulation of mast cells was found significant. [96] The hydro-alcoholic extract of this plant used in asthma as it stabilizes the mast cell activity, rheumatoid arthritis and showed a significant role in the marked reduction of bronchial hyper-responsiveness on decreasing the infiltration of the eosinophils and the neutrophils in rodents. [97],[98] This plant is also used in the Unani system of medicine for stress, disturbances of the body homeostasis or with the disturbances of the normal body physiology such as psychological (behavioral changes), immunological and hormonal imbalances which causes the pathogenesis of certain chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, hypertension, weakness of the immune system of the human body, asthma, diabetes, heart ailments, cancer, [99] antioxidant [100] with wound healing activity. [101],[102]

The antioxidant activity was investigated in Onosma chlorotricum Boiss and Noe [103] while Onosma griffithii vatke possess spasmogenic activity. [104] O. chlorotricum Boiss and Noe [103] and Onosma dichroanthum Boiss. have spasmolytic activity, [105] and acetones extract of roots of O. dichroanthum Boiss. leads to produce potent free radical scavenging effect. [106]

O. griffithii was also screened parasiticidal activity against Leishmania major based on the IC 50 (Inhibitotry concentration) values, found effective, similarly moderate antifungal activity was displayed by the crude methanolic extract against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani while against the Staphylococcus aureus, the aqueous fraction demonstrated moderate antibacterial activity. [107]

Sharma et al. (2004), unveiled the effect of O. echioides extract on two-stage skin carcinogenesis and on tumor promoter induced markers and oxidative stress in Swiss mice. Pre-treatment of O. echioides extract in both studies on single topical application of benzoyl peroxide followed by exposure to ultraviolet B radiation induced significant oxidative stress and elevated the marker parameters of tumor promotion. [108]

The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the root bark of O. hispidum Wall following antibacterial and crude ethanolic extract and methanol fraction exhibited substantial bioactivity against species of corynebacteria, enterococci, staphylococci and streptococci, in which ferulic acid was found more bioactive compared with the vanillic acid [90],[109] and hispidone, a flavanone isolated from this plant have cholinesterase inhibition property [84] while root extract possess wound healing, [110] antitussive [90] and antidiabetic activity. [111]

The effect of brassinolide on cell growth, shikonin and its derivative formation in Onosma paniculatum cell culture was also studied. [112] It is concluded that the pigment yields of callus and suspension cultured cells were increased and maximum yield of pigments was obtained when 10(-6) M of ascorbic acid was added to the medium [113] while its petroleum ether extract induces cell death in a caspase dependent manner. [114] A crude elicitor preparation of culture of Aspergillus spices could also accelerate shikonin derivatives formation but irreversibly arrest cell growth in O. paniculatum cell cultures. [115]

A study also shows genotoxic effects of over ground and underground parts of species Onosma stellulata in-vitro conditions was conducted by using Allium-test, along with observation of chromosomes abnormalities, causing genotoxic effects in mitosis at meristematic cells of Onion. [1],[116]


   Traditional Uses Top


Traditionally, genus Onosma L. plants are used as a stimulant in rheumatism, bladder pain, kidney irritation, palpitation of heart [57] and roots for their diuretic, cooling, astringent and demulcent action. While in India, it is used in the treatment of hypertension, fever and nervous conditions. In Turkey, these plants are used to treat inflammatory disorders such as tonsillitis, hemorrhoids and bronchitis and pain. [82]

O. hispidum Wall. used in the treatment of fevers, pain relief, wounds, bites, infectious diseases, stings and flowers are used as a cardiac tonic and stimulant while bruised roots are applied externally to cutaneous eruptions. [111]

The roots of O. argentatum Hub.-Mor. are used traditionally in Turkey for wound healing, burn and in traditional medicine of Lorestan province, oily extract of root of a plant known as Tashnehdary (O. chlorotricum) are used topically for wound healing. [103]

An extract, used orally, is prepared from the roots of O, armeniacum K. by villagers who heat the roots with butter and filter then used as a folk medicine in Turkey to treat wounds, burns, dyspnea, hoarseness, hemorrhoids, abdominal aches, stomach ulcers and gynecological problems. [95]

O. bracteatum Wall., known as Gaozaban in the Unani system of medicine and as Sedge in the Middle East and traditionally used as a tonic that helps in building the body's immune resistance with regulation of urine output [99] also reported to be used in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, tonic, alterative, demulcent, diuretic and spasmolytic. A decoction is used in the treatment of syphilis, rheumatism, leprosy, restlessness in febrile excitement, relieving excessive thirst, useful in irritation of the bladder, palpitation of the heart, stomach and strangury, also folk medicine for the treatment of the wound and skin diseases. [102]

The leaves of O. echioides DC. are alterative and powder has given to children as a purgative. Flowers are used as a cordial, stimulant in the treatment of rheumatism and palpitations of the heart while root is bruised, used to treat skin eruptions. [117]

The dried roots of O. paniculata Bureau and Franchet are used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. [91]


   Industrial Uses Top


O. hispidum Wall. has been reported to be the source of Ratanjot, a red dye yielding root, commonly used for coloring food stuffs, oils and medicinal preparations. Owing to its color, it has also been used as an adulterant in spices like chilli powder and food preparations. Its use as a visible coloring agent for Vanaspati has been suggested but feeding trials on rats have shown this coloring matter to be non-toxic in low doses and toxic in high concentrations while causing destruction of liver cells after continued feeding. The color imparted to Vanaspati is completely removed by simple chemical treatment with alkali solution and to a substantial extent by exposure to direct sunlight or heating. Infect, the dye does not appear to be suitable for coloring Vanaspati. [110],[118]

The combination of mordants like alum: Chrome, alum copper sulfate, alum: Ferrous sulfate, chrome: Copper sulfate, chrome: Ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate: Ferrous sulfate with roots, in the ratio of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 were studied for colorfastness properties and light, washing, rubbing and perspiration fastness of the dyed samples gives fair to excellent fastness grades. [119]


   Discussion Top


Genus Onosma L. has controversial and complicated patterns of morphological, karyological and taxonomical data. The numerous similar plants were described on the basis of minor difference in morphological characteristics. Either these plants have only one or two references or the sub-species of other accepted plants. Most of these plants belong to the same species, but due to lack of taxonomical data, some researchers use a different name, which may be due to some morphological changes by different climate conditions. [Table 2] enumerates such type of plants, which are available in literature but not have so sufficient data to identify or to prove that these species are exist or not and also provides available references for these individual names. The plant list of Royal botanical garden, Kew and Missouri botanical garden shows that only about 37 plants have correct taxonomical data. The plants of this genus are abundantly distributed in Turkey, China, Iran, Pakistan, Syria, India and Sri Lanka besides these, Switzerland, Romania and Anatolia. This genus distinctly differ in external nutlet characters, size, shape, color and ornamentation and sculpturing of the nutlet surface patterns with petal morphology like corolla color, shape and size. As for as phytochemicals are concerned the alkanins and shikonin are abundantly found in this genus, which are chiral pairs of naturally occurring isohexenylnaphthazarins with some specific phytochemicals such as hispidone, onosmins, onosmone and uplandicine. Besides these, flavonoids, ferulic and vanillic acids are also found, which may be responsible for anti-inflammatory, wound healing, analgesic and antibacterial activities.

The plants of this genus possess anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-diabetic, antitussive and spasmolytic activities and traditionally used in rheumatism, bladder pain, kidney irritation, palpitation of heart while roots are used in astringent, demulcent, diuretic, hypertension, fever, pain and inflammatory disorders and extensively used for so many medicinal purposes by the local peoples. The main aim of this review is to establish permanent genus literature in plant resource information to facilitate future studies and human interventions in the world.


   Acknowledgments Top


Authors are thankful to Mr. Dev Murti, Chairman, Dr. Jagannth Sahoo, Director, Dr. M M Abdullah, HOD, SRMS College of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy), Bareilly for his encouragement and providing research facilities and SRMS trust for financial support.

 
   References Top

1.El-shazly A, Ghani AA, Wink M. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Onosma arenaria (Boraginaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol 2003;31:477-85.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Shu DZ. Onosma Linnaeus. Flora China 1995;16:348-57.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Reidl H. Onosma. In: Devis PH, editor. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 6. Edinburg: Edinburg University press; 1978. p. 326-76.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Nasir YJ. Onosma L. In: Nasir YJ, Alis I, editors. Flora of Pakistan. Vol. 191. Islamabad: National Herbarium, Pakistan Agriculture Research Council; 1989. p. 94-100.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Binzet R, Kandemir I, Orcan N. Palynological classification of Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) species from east Mediterranean region in Turkey. Acta Bot Croat 2010;69:259-74.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Stearn WT. The gender of the generic name Onosma (Boraginaceae). Taxon 1993;42:679-81.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Kolarcik V, Zozomova-Lihova J, Martonfi P. Systematics and evolutionary history of the asterotricha group of the genus Onosma (Boraginaceae) in central and Southern Europe inferred from AFLP and nrDNA ITS data. Plant Syst Evol 2010;290:21-45.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Kandemir A, Turkmen Z. A new species of Onosma (Boraginaceae) from eastern Turkey. Turk J Bot 2010;34:277-82.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Mehrabian AR, Sheidai M, Noormohammadi Z, Asrei Y, Mozafarian V. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and morphological diversity in Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) species in Iran. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:10831-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Ozcan T. Characterization of Onosma bracteosum Hausskn. and Bornm. and Onosma thracicum Velen. based on fatty acid compositions and A-Tocopherol contents of the seed oils. IUFS J Biol 2009;68:75-83.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Vouillamoz PJ. Critical inventory, chromosome number and chorology of Onosma helvetica (A. DC.) Boissiere Onosma pseudoarenaria Schur sl (Boraginaceae) in Switzerland. Bull Murithienne 1999;117:45-59.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Suteu D, Popescu F, Popescu O. Genetic diversity evaluation of the species Onosma Sp. (Boraginaceae). Ser Chem 2007;16:45-54.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Johnston IM. Studies in the Boraginaceae, 26. Further evaluations of the genera of the Lithospermae. J Arnold Arbor 1954;35:1-81.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Qureshi US, Qaiser M. Palynological study of Onosma (Boraginaceae) from Pakistan. Pak J Bot 1987;19:99-105.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Maggi F, Tirillini B, Vittori S, Sagratini G, Papa F. Analysis of the volatile components of Onosma echioides (L.) L. Var. Columnae Lacaita growing in central Italy. J Essent Oil Res 2009;21:441-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Binzet R, Akcin OE. Pollen morphology of some Onosma species (Boraginaceae) from Turkey. Pak J Bot 2011;43:731-41.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Akcin OE. An investigation on the morphology, anatomy and ecology of endemic Onosma bornmuelleri Hausskn. Ekoloji 2004;51:13-9. Available from: http://www.ekoloji.com.tr/ [Last accessed on 2013 Feb 10].  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Akcin OE, Engin A. The morphological and anatomical and ecological properties of endemic Onosma bracteosum Hausskn. and Bornm. (Boraginaceae) species. Turk J Bot 2005;29:317-25.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Binzet R, Orcan N. Anatomical and palynological investigations on endemic Onosma mersinana Riedl, and Orcan. Pak J Bot 2009;41:503-10.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Teppner H. Karyosystematik Von Onosma stellulatum, O. pygmaeum Und O. leptanthum (Boraginaceae). Botanische Jahrbucher Fur Systematik 1981;102:297-306. Available from: http://www.schweizerbart.de/journals/botjb [Last accessed on 2013 Feb 10].  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Teppner H. Onosma kaheirei Spec, Nova Und O. erectum (Boraginaceae) Aus Griechenland. Phyton (Austria) 1988;28:115-31.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Akcin OE. The Morphological and anatomical properties of endemic Onosma armenum DC. (Boraginaceae) species. Int J Nat Eng Sci 2007;1:37-43.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, et al. Flora Europaea. Vol. 3. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1972. p. 89.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Akcin OE. Micromorphological and anatomical studies on petals of 11 Turkish Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) taxa. Bangladesh J Plant Taxon 2009;16:157-64.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Ahmad I, Anis I, Malik A, Nawaz SA, Choudhary MI. Cholinesterase inhibitory constituents from Onosma hispida. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2003;51:412-4.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Papageorgiou VP, Assimopoulou AN, Ballis AC. Alkannins and shikonins: A new class of wound healing agents. Curr Med Chem 2008;15:3248-67.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Ozgen U, Coskun M, Kazaz C, Secen H. Naphthoquinones from the roots of Onosma argentatum Hub.-Mor. (Boraginaceae). Turk J Chem 2004;28:451-4.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Ozgen U, Ikbal M, Hacimuftuoglu A, Houghton PJ, Gocer F, Dogan H, et al. Fibroblast growth stimulation by extracts and compounds of Onosma argentatum roots. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104:100-3.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Sagratini G, Cristalli G, Giardinà D, Gioventù G, Maggi F, Ricciutelli M, et al. Alkannin/shikonin mixture from roots of Onosma echioides (L.) L.: Extraction method study and quantification. J Sep Sci 2008;31:945-52.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Ahmad VU, Kousar F, Khan A, Zubair M, Iqbal S, Tareen RB. A new ketone and a known anticancer triterpenoid from the leaves of Onosma limitaneum. Helv Chim Acta 2005;88:309-11.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Naz S, Khan RA, Siddiqi R, Sayeed SA. Antitussive activity directed isolation of compounds from Onosma hispidum. Am J Pharmacol Toxicol 2006;1:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Naz S, Ahmad S, Ajaz Rasool S, Asad Sayeed S, Siddiqi R. Antibacterial activity directed isolation of compounds from Onosma hispidum. Microbiol Res 2006;161:43-8.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Kretschmer N, Rinner B, Deutsch AJ, Lohberger B, Knausz H, Kunert O, et al. Naphthoquinones from Onosma paniculata induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma Cells. J Nat Prod 2012;75:865-9.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Hu Y, Jiang Z, Leung KS, Zhao Z. Simultaneous determination of naphthoquinone derivatives in Boraginaceous herbs by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Chim Acta 2006;577:26-31.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Larin AP, Aleutskiĭ NN. On the efficacy of Onosma in experimental hypertension. Farmakol Toksikol 1967;30:694-6.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.Ahmad I, Nawaz SA, Afza N, Malik A, Fatima I, Khan SB, et al. Isolation of onosmins A and B, lipoxygenase inhibitors from Onosma hispida. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2005;53:907-10.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Biradar YS. Preliminary evaluation of selected medicinal plants for antiplasmodial activity. In: Evaluation of antimalarial activity of selected plants of Indian systems of medicine and study the synergistic activity of the compounds present therein. Indian ETD Repository @ INFLIBNET, 2010. Available from: http://www.ir.inflibnet.ac.in: 8080/jspui/bitstream/10603/1379/8/08_chapter 3.pdf. [Last accessed on 2013 Jan].  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.Kundakoviæ T, Stanojkoviæ T, Juraniæ Z, Kovaceviæ N. Cytotoxicity in vitro of naphthazarin derivatives from Onosma arenaria. Phytother Res 2006;20:602-4.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.Salman S, Kumbasar S, Ozgen U, Erdogan F, Suleyman H. Contraceptive effects of Onosma armeniacum on embryo implantation in rats. Cell Membr Free Radic Res 2009;1:90-4.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.Di Giorgio C, Delmas F, Tueni M, Cheble E, Khalil T, Balansard G. Alternative and complementary antileishmanial treatments: Assessment of the antileishmanial activity of 27 Lebanese plants, including 11 endemic species. J Altern Complement Med 2008;14:157-62.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Choudhary GP. In vitro mast cell stabilization activity of Onosma bracteatum Wall. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2010;1:1-6. Available from: http://www.ijpbs.net/ [Last accessed on 2013 Feb 10].  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.Patel KG, Patel KV, Gandhiijpt TR. Evaluation of the effect of Onosma bracteatum Wall (Boraginaceae) on bronchial hyperreactivity in sensitized guinea pigs. Iranian J Pharmacol Ther 2008;7:35-41.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.Patel KG, Detroja JR, Shah TA, Patel KV, Gandhi TR. Evaluation of the effect of Onosma bracteatum Wall (Boraginaceae) using experimental allergic and inflammatory models. Glob J Pharmacol 2011;5:40-9.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.Badruddeen SF, Siddiqui HH, Haque SE, Khalid M, Akhtar J. Psychoimmunomodulatory effects of Onosma bracteatum Wall. (Gaozaban) on stress model in sprague dawley rats. J Clin Diagn Res 2012;6:1356-60.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.Menghani E, Sudhanshu, Rao N, Mittal S. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of Onosma bracteatum. Int J Pharm Res Dev 2012;4:16-20.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.Choudhary GP. Antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanolic extract of Onosma bracteatum Wall. Int J Adv Pharm Biol Chem 2012;1:402-5.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.Choudhary GP. Wound healing activity of the ethanolic extract of Onosma bracteatum Wall. Int J Pharm Chem Sci 2012;1:1035-7.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.Namjoyan F, Bazvand M, Azemi ME. Antioxidant activity and phytochemical investigation of Onosma chlorotricum Boiss and Noe lipophilic extract on thin layer chromatography (TLC). Jentashapir 2012;1391:55-60. Available from: http://jsmj.ajums.ac.ir/jentashapir/index.php/jentashapir/article/view/429 [Last accessed on 2013 Feb 10].  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.Ali N, Ahmad B, Shah SW. Spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Onosma griffithii Vatke. Pak J Pharm Sci 2011;24:553-8.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.Moghaddam PZ, Mazandarani M, Zolfaghari MR, Badeleh MT, Ghaemi EA. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of root extract of Onosma dichroanthum Boiss. in North of Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res 2012;6:1776-81.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.Mazandarani M, Zarghami Moghaddam P, Zolfaghari MR, Ghaemi EA, Bayat H. Effects of solvent type on phenolics and flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in Onosma dichroanthum Boiss. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:4481-8.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.Ahmad B, Ali N, Bashir S, Choudhary MI, Azam S, Khan I. Parasiticidal, antifungal and antibacterial activities of Onosma griffithii Vatke. Afr J Biotechnol 2009;8:5084-7.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.Sharma S, Khan K, Sultana S. Effect of Onosma echioides on dmba/croton oil mediated carcinogenic response, hyperproliferation and oxidative damage in Murine skin. Life Sci 2004;75:391-410.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.Kumar N, Gupta AK. Wound-healing activity of Onosma hispidum (Ratanjot) in normal and diabetic rats. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 2009;15:342-51.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.Kumar N, Gupta AK, Prakash D, Kumar P. Hypoglycemic activity of Onosma hispidum (Ratanjot). Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 2010;30:213-6.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.Yang Y, Zhang H, Cao R. Effect of Brassinolide on Growth and Shikonin Formation in Cultured Onosma paniculatum Cells. J Plant Growth Regul 1999;18:89-92.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.Zhou L, Zheng G, Wang S, Gan F. Metabolic regulation of pigment formation of Onosma paniculatum cultured cells. Chin J Biotechnol 1992;8:263-8.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.Rinner B, Kretschmer N, Knausz H, Mayer A, Boechzelt H, Hao XJ, et al. A petrol ether extract of the roots of Onosma paniculatum induces cell death in a caspase dependent manner. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;129:182-8.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.Wen N, Qunhua Z, Zhonghao X, Riqiang C. Effects of fungal elicitor on shikonin derivatives formation in Onosma paniculatum cell cultures. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;129:182-8.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.Redziæ SS. The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Coll Antropol 2007;31:869-90.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.Tosun A, Akkol EK, Bahadir O, Yeºilada E. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of some Onosma L. species growing in Turkey. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;120:378-81.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.Haq F. The ethno botanical uses of medicinal plants of Allai Valley, western Himalaya Pakistan. Int J Plant Res 2012;2:21-34.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.Naz S. Structure and functionality of the pigments isolated from Onosma hispidum (Ratanjot) Terminalla catappa (Jangli Badam) and other tropical plant. PhD Thesis. Pakistan: University of Karachi; 2005. p. 53-174.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.Bains S, Kaur K, Kang S. Colourfastness properties of dyeing wool with Goldendrop (Onosma echioides) dye using combination of mordants. Colourage 2005;51:51-5.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.Furth DG, Ben-Dov Y, Gerson U. A new species of Peliococcus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) from the Judean desert. Isr J Entomol 1983;17:105-8.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.Binzet R, Orcan N. A new species of (Boraginaceae) from southern Turkey. Novon 2007;17:8-10.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.Binzet R, Akcin OE. Nutlet size, shape and surface ornamentation in 14 Onosma species (Boraginaceae). Acta Bot Croat 2009;68:117-26.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.Ardic M, Koyuncu O, Tokur S. The flora of Hekimdag (Bozdag), Eskisehir. AUJST-C Life Sci Biotechnol 2011;1:35-58. Available from: http://btd.anadolu.edu.tr/index.php/BTDC/article/viewFile/ 73/31 [Last accessed on 2013 Feb 10].  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.Vural C. The flora of Erciyes Dauy (Kayseri, Turkey). Turk J Bot 2009;29:185-236.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.Mihai D, Adrian O, Nicolae S, Ion S. Vascular wild flora of Danube Delta biosphere reserve. Sci Ann Danube Delta Inst 2011;17:1-37.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.Akcin OE, Binzet R. The micromorphological and anatomical properties of Onosma angustissimum Hausskn. and Bornm. and O. cassium Boiss. (Boraginaceae). Bangladesh J Plant Taxon 2010;17:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.Terzi M, D'amico FS. Chasmophytic vegetation of the class Asplenietea trichomanis in south-eastern Italy. Acta Bot Croat 2008;67:147-74.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.Peruzzi L, Passalacqua NG. Taxonomy of the Onosma echioides (L.) L. complex (Boraginaceae) based on morphometric analysis. Bot J Linn Soc 2008;157:763-74.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.Aytac Z, Duman H. The Steppic flora of high mounts Ahir, Oksus and Binboga (Kahramanmaras, Kayseri, Turkey). Flora Mediterr 2005;15:121-78.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.Aslan S, Vural M. Flora of Kýbrýs Koyu Valley (Mamak-Ankara, Turkey). Biodicon 2009;2:34-64.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.Georghiou K, Delipetrou P. Patterns and traits of the endemic plants of Greece. Bot J Linn Soc 2010;162:130-422.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.Attar IF, Hamzehee B. Onosma bisotunensis (Boraginaceae), a new species from western Iran. Novon 2007;17:279-81.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.Peruzzi L, Aquaro G, Cesca G. Distribution, karyology and taxonomy of Onosma helvetica subsp lucana Comb. Nova (Boraginaceae), a schizoendemic in Basilicata and Calabria (S. Italy). Phyton Ann Rei Botanicae 2004;44:69-81.  Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.Akcin OE, Binzet R. Micromorphological studies on nutlets of some Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) species from Turkey. Pak J Bot 2011;43:743-52.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.Duzenli A, Cakan H. Flora of Mount Musa (Hatay-Turkey). Turk J Bot 2001;25:285-309.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.Ullah I, Wazir SM, Farooq A, Khan SU, Hussain Z. Identification of common weeds and its distribution pattern in wheat fields of Fr Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pak J Weed Sci Res 2011;17:407-16.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.Favarger PC. Recherches Cytologiques Sur Quelques Onosma D'europe Occidentale. Ann Naturhistor Mus Wien 1971;75:59-65. Available from: http://www.landesmuseum.at/pdf_frei_remote/ANNA_75_0059-0065.pdf [Last accessed on 2013 Feb 10].  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.Mehrabian AR, Sheidai M, Noormohammadi Z, Mozafarian V, Asrei Y. Palynological diversity in the genus Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) of Iran. Ann Biol Res 2012;3:3885-93.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.Authier P. Catalogue Commente D e La Flore De La Region Des Monts Timfi (Parc National Du Vikos-Aoos Et Environs-Epire-Nord-Ouest Grece). 4. Boraginaceae. Candollea 2000;55:153-78.  Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.Dukas R, Dafni A. Buzz-pollination in three Nectariferous Boraginaceae and possible evolution of buzz-pollinated flowers. Pl Syst Evol 1990;169:65-8.  Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.Teppner H, Iatrou G. Onosma sangiasense Spec, Nova (Boraginaceae) from Peloponnisos (Greece). Phyton (Austria) 1987;27:285-8.  Back to cited text no. 86
    
87.Teppner H. Onosma L. In: Tan K, Strid A, editors. Mountain Flora of Greece. Vol. 2. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1991. p. 25-38.  Back to cited text no. 87
    
88.Pavol M, Martonfiova L, Kolarcik V. Karyotypes and genome size of Onosma species from northern limits of the genus in Carpathians. Caryologia 2008;61:363-74.  Back to cited text no. 88
    
89.Vural M, Duman H, Aytac Z, Adiguzel N. A new genus and three new species from central Anatolia, Turkey. Turk J Bot 2012;36:427-33.  Back to cited text no. 89
    
90.Teppner H. Karyology of some Greek Onasma species (Boraginaceae). Bot Chron 1991;10:271-92.  Back to cited text no. 90
    
91.Gogala A, Surina B. Foraging behaviour of the Bee Osmia apicata Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Acta Entomol Slov Ljubljana 2011;19:139-44.  Back to cited text no. 91
    
92.Attar F, Joharchi MR. Onosma khorassanica, a new species from Northeast of Iran. Rostaniha 2006;7:111-4.  Back to cited text no. 92
    
93.Christodoulakis D. The flora of Ikaria (Greece, E. Aegean Islands). Phyton (Horn, Austria) 1995;36:63-91.  Back to cited text no. 93
    
94.Yavari A, Shahgolzari SM. Floristic study of Khan-Gormaz protected area in Hamadan province, Iran. Int J Agric Biol 2010;12:271-5.  Back to cited text no. 94
    
95.Kandemir A, Turkmen Z. The flora of Uzumlu-Sakaltutan (Erzincan-Gumuflhane). Turk J Bot 2008;32:265-304.  Back to cited text no. 95
    
96.Joharchi MR, Amiri MS. Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran. Avicenna J Phytomedicine 2012;2:105-12.  Back to cited text no. 96
    
97.Ghahreman A, Heydari J, Attar F, Hamzeh'ee B. A floristic study of the southwestern slopes of Binaloud elevations (Iran: Khorassan Province). J Sci (JSUT) 2006;32:1-12.  Back to cited text no. 97
    
98.Memariani F, Joharchi MR, Ejtehadi H, Emadzade K. Contributions to the flora and vegetation of Binalood Mountain range, NE Iran: Floristic and chorological studies in Fereizi region. Ferdowsi Uni Int J Biol Sci2009;1:1-18.  Back to cited text no. 98
    
99.Teppner H. Remarks to the Onosma species O. bourgaei, O. spruneri and O. stellulata (Boraginaceae) offered. Samentauschverzeichnis 1996:33-9.  Back to cited text no. 99
    
100.Reidl H, Binzel R, Orcan N. A new species of Onosma (Boraginaceae-Lithospermeae) from southern Turkey. Edinb J Bot 2004;61:127-30.  Back to cited text no. 100
    
101.Morteza-Semnani K, Saeedi M, Akbarzadeh M, Moshiri K. The essential oil composition of Onosma microcarpum Dc. Flavour Fragr J 2006;21:314-6.  Back to cited text no. 101
    
102.Binzet R, Akcin OE. The anatomical properties of two Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) species from Turkey. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:3288-94.  Back to cited text no. 102
    
103.Riedl H. Additional notes on Cwoiswa-Species (Boraginaceae) from Turkey. Linzer Biol Beitr 1987;19:461-5.  Back to cited text no. 103
    
104.Kahyaoglu M, Turkoglu I. Antimicrobial activites of some plants collected in Elazig regions. Dumlupinar univeritesi fen bilimleri enstitusu Dergesi 2008;15:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 104
    
105.Soueges R. Embryogeny of the Boraginaceae; development of the embryo in Onosma nanum DC (O. decipiens Schott et Kotschy). C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 1951;232:2164-7.  Back to cited text no. 105
    
106.Teppner H, Tuzlaci E. Onosma propontica Aznavour (Boraginaceae-Lithospermeae). Landesmuseums NF. 1994;76:77-83.  Back to cited text no. 106
    
107.Tiwari UK, Adhikari BS, Rawat GS. On the recollection and rediscovery of Onosma pyramidale Hook. F., Boraginaceae from Chamoli, Uttarakhand. Asian J Pharm Life Sci 2011;1:2231-423.  Back to cited text no. 107
    
108.Lopez G. Notas Sorbre El Genero Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) En El Mediterraneo Occidental. An Jard Bot Madrid 1994;52:43-52.  Back to cited text no. 108
    
109.Mroczek T, Baj S, Chrobok A, Glowniak K. Screening for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant materials by electron ionization RP-HPLC-MS with thermabeam interface. Biomed Chromatogr 2004;18:745-51.  Back to cited text no. 109
    
110.Khalili MA, Miresmaeili SM, Moghddam HH, Rezaei SH, Vahidi AR. The study of burn healing of Onosma stenosiphon on type II burn of back and testis areas in rats. J Herbal Drugs 2010;1:29-34.  Back to cited text no. 110
    
111.Ghahremaninejad F, Joharchi M, Vitek E. New plant records for Khorassan province, Iran. Ann Narurhist Mus Wien B 2005;106:255-93.  Back to cited text no. 111
    
112.Pavlova D, Kozuharova E, Dimitrov D. A floristic catalogue of serpentine areas in the eastern Rhodope mountains (Bulgaria). Pol Bot J 2003;48:21-41.  Back to cited text no. 112
    
113.Petrova A, Vladimirov V. Balkan endemics in the Bulgarian flora. Phytologia Balcanica 2010;16:293-311.  Back to cited text no. 113
    
114.Ancev M, Polatschek A. Erysimum Bulgaricum (Brassicaceae), a newly distinguished species for the Balkan Peninsula. Ann Naturhist Mus Wien B 2003;104:691-8.  Back to cited text no. 114
    
115.Porto M, Pereira AJ, Jacinto M, Tauleigne-Gomes C. Onosma tricerosperma subsp. tricerosperma Lag. (Boraginaceae), a new species and genus to the Portuguese Flora. Acta Bot Malacitana 2012;37:216-8.  Back to cited text no. 115
    
116.Papageorgiou VP, Assimopoulou AN, Couladouros EA, Hepworth D, Nicolaou KC. The chemistry and biology of Alkannin, Shikonin, and related Naphthazarin natural products. Angew Chem Int Ed 1999;38:270-300.  Back to cited text no. 116
    
117.Kandemir A, Hedge IC. An anomalous new Ferulago (Apiaceae) from eastern Turkey. Willdenowia 2007;37:273-6.  Back to cited text no. 117
    
118.Redzic A, Redzic S, Sejdic N. Genotoxic effects of aquatic extract of endemic plant Onosma stellulata Waldst. and Kit. (Boraginaceae). Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2009;6:347-446.  Back to cited text no. 118
    
119.Teppner H. Onosma stridii Spec, Nova (Boraginaceae) Aus Griechenland. Phyton (Austria) 1988;28:271-5.  Back to cited text no. 119
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Onosma heterophyllum : Phenolic composition, enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities
Mehmet Sabih Ozer,Bulent Kirkan,Cengiz Sarikurkcu,Mustafa Cengiz,Olcay Ceylan,Nurdan Atilgan,Bektas Tepe
Industrial Crops and Products. 2018; 111: 179
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Identification of Onosma visianii Roots Extract and Purified Shikonin Derivatives as Potential Acaricidal Agents against Tetranychus urticae
Stefania Sut,Roman Pavela,Vladislav Kolarcik,Loredana Cappellacci,Riccardo Petrelli,Filippo Maggi,Stefano Dall’Acqua,Giovanni Benelli
Molecules. 2017; 22(6): 1002
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Antitumor evaluation of two selected Pakistani plant extracts on human bone and breast cancer cell lines
Nadja Engel,Iftikhar Ali,Anna Adamus,Marcus Frank,Akber Dad,Sajjad Ali,Barbara Nebe,Muhammad Atif,Muhammad Ismail,Peter Langer,Viqar Uddin Ahmad
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Wound-healing activity of an oligomer of alkannin/shikonin, isolated from root bark ofOnosma echioides
Gawand Nikita,Purnima Vivek,Gadgoli Chhaya
Natural Product Research. 2015; 29(16): 1584
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Onosma aucheriana: A source of biologically active molecules for novel food ingredients and pharmaceuticals
Pavle Z. Maškovic,Lazari D. Diamanto,Jelena M. Vujic,Aleksandra D. Cvetanovic,Marija M. Radojkovic,Slobodan B. Gadžuric,Gokhan Zengin
Journal of Functional Foods. 2015; 19: 479
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Design, Development and Phytochemical Evaluation of a Poly Herbal Formulation Linkus Syrup
Zeeshan Ahmed Sheikh,Aqib Zahoor,Saleha Suleman Khan,Khan Usmanghani
Chinese Medicine. 2014; 05(02): 104
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Distribution
   Morphology
   Phytochemistry
   Ethnopharmacology
   Traditional Uses
   Industrial Uses
   Discussion
   Acknowledgments
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed5407    
    Printed69    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded10    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 6    

Recommend this journal