Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Login 
Pharmacognosy Reviews
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 46-55  

Borreria and Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae): A review of their ethnomedicinal properties, chemical constituents, and biological activities


Institute of Chemistry and Biotecnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió-AL, Brazil

Date of Submission14-Nov-2011
Date of Decision19-Nov-2011
Date of Web Publication08-May-2012

Correspondence Address:
Lucia Maria Conserva
Instituto de Química e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970, Maceió-AL
Brazil
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.95866

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Borreira and Spermacoce are genera of Rubiaceae widespread in tropical and subtropical America, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Based on its fruits morphology they are considered by many authors to be distinct genera and most others, however, prefer to combine the two taxa under the generic name Spermacoce. Whereas the discussion is still unclear, in this work they were considered as synonyms. Some species of these genera play an important role in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. Some of these uses include the treatment of malaria, diarrheal and other digestive problems, skin diseases, fever, hemorrhage, urinary and respiratory infections, headache, inflammation of eye, and gums. To date, more than 60 compounds have been reported from Borreria and Spermacoce species including alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Studies have confirmed that extracts from Borreria and Spermacoce species as well as their isolated compounds possess diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, larvicidal, antioxidant, gastrointestinal, anti-ulcer, and hepatoprotective, with alkaloids and iridoids as the major active principles. This paper briefly reviews the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of some isolated compounds and extracts of both genera.

Keywords: Alkaloids, borreria, flavonoids, iridoids, rubiaceae, spermacoce, terpenoids


How to cite this article:
Conserva LM, Ferreira JC. Borreria and Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae): A review of their ethnomedicinal properties, chemical constituents, and biological activities. Phcog Rev 2012;6:46-55

How to cite this URL:
Conserva LM, Ferreira JC. Borreria and Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae): A review of their ethnomedicinal properties, chemical constituents, and biological activities. Phcog Rev [serial online] 2012 [cited 2018 Nov 17];6:46-55. Available from: http://www.phcogrev.com/text.asp?2012/6/11/46/95866


   Introduction Top


The Rubiaceae family comprises one of the largest angiosperm families, with 650 genera [1] and approximately 13,000 species, [2] distributed mainly not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also reaching the temperate and cold regions of Europe and Northern Canada. [3] In Brazil, this family comprises about 130 genera and 1500 species distributed across different vegetation formations, with a great occurrence in the Atlantic Forest. [3],[4],[5] This family is currently classified in three subfamilies and over 43 tribes. [2] The tribe Spermacoceae (subfamily Rubioideae), which belongs to the genera Borreria G.F.W. Mey. and Spermacoce L., is characterized by a herbaceous habitat, with over 1000 species have a mainly pantropical distribution, but a few genera extend into temperate regions, excluding New Zealand. [6],[7]

The genera Borreria and Spermacoce, the largest of the tribe Spermacoceae, comprises about 280 species distributed in tropical and subtropical America, Africa, Asia, and Europe. [8] In Brazil, 36 Borreria species were recorded, of which 22 are endemics. [9],[10] Based on its fruits morphology, they are considered by many authors to be distinct genera and most others, however, prefer to combine the two taxa under the generic name Spermacoce. [6],[11] In this work, they were considered as synonyms. This review reports an account of the species used in traditional medicine, their phytochemical profile, and biological activities of isolated compounds, mainly alkaloids and iridoids, and extracts. The data collected are based on the papers published up to September 2011 and the data bases assessed include Chemical Abstracts, Napralert, and ISI Web of Science.

Ethnomedicinal properties

Borreria and Spermacoce species are used medicinally in various manners and are reputed in traditional medicine of Latin America, Asia, Africa, and West Indies. The species most used as medicinal are described below:

B. alata (Aubl.) DC. [Syn.: S. alata Aubl., S. latifolia Aubl., B. latifolia (Aubl.) K. Schum.] is a herbaceous species native to South America. [12],[13] In Nepal, the roots juice this plant is used to treat malaria. [14]

B. articularis (L. f.) F. N. Williams [Syn.: S. articularis L.f., S. scabra Willd. and B. hispida (L.) K. Schum.)], commonly known in Brazil as "poaia", is originally native to the temperate and tropical Asia regions and naturalized in Africa and Australia. [15] The leaves of this plant are used as ophthalmic, inflammation of eye and gums, blindness, carache, fever, spleen complaints, sore, conjunctivitis, hemorrhage, gallstones, dysentery, and diarrhoea, [15],[16] and the decoction of the leaves, roots, and seeds is used in India for dropsy. [17]

B. centranthoides Cham. and Schltdl. (Syn.: B. centranthoides f. glabrior Chodat and Hassl.), known in Brazil as "sabugueirinho do campo", is a perennial herb originating from fields in southern Brazil, and possibly Uruguay and Argentina. In Brazil, these plants have been used for the treatment of liver ailments, [18],[19] kidneys disorders, [20] and in Argentina as an abortifacient. [21]

B. eupatorioides Cham. and Schltdl. (Syn.: B. polyana DC, S. eupatorioides (Cham. and Schltdl.) Kuntze, and Galianthe eupatorioides (Cham. and Schltdl.) E.L. Cabral) is an herb which decoction of the leaves is used in Argentina with Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex. AW Hill. or Gymnopteris tomentosa (Lam.) as emmenagogue and the roots as a contraceptive, [22] and for diarrhea, and urinary and respiratory infections. [23]

B. hispida (Linn.) K. Schum. (Syn.: S. hispida L.) is being used as an alternative therapy for diabetes. [24] In India, decoction of the plant is used for headache [25] and the seeds as stimulant [26] and for the treatment of internal injuries of nerves and kidney. [27]

B. laevis (Lam.) Griseb. (Syn.: S. laevis Roxb. and S. assurgens Ruiz and Pavon) is a small herb found in the tropical regions of Asia. [28] Also occurs in Mexico, where decoction of the leaves is used to treat kidney pain and prevent menstruation [29] while the entire plant in admixture with Cuscuta L. and Zebrina pendula Schum is used for amenorrhea in Jamaica [30] and West India. [31] In Jamaica, the tea of the entire plant boiled with Desmodium Desv. and Iresine paniculata Kuntze also is used as diuretic. [30]

B. latifolia (Aubl.) K. Schum. (Syn.: S. latifolia Aubl.), known in Brazil as "poaia-do-campo", is an annual erect herb that occur in the Americas. [3],[32]

B. ocymoides (Burm. f.) DC. (Syn.: S. ocymoides Burm. f.) is common in all America, also occurs in eastern Africa and East India. [9] In Nigeria, the juice of the leaves is applied for ring worm and eczema and the sap is squeezed on to the wound or lesion. [33]

B. princeae K. Schum. [Syn.: S. princeae (K. Schum.) Verdec.] is a scrambling or decumbent perennial herb, native to Africa, where is used for the treatment of skin diseases. [34]

B. pusilla (Wall.) DC. [Syn.: B. stricta (Linn. f.) K. Schum., S. pusilla Wall.] is an annual erect herb native to tropical Africa and Asia. In India, the fresh buds associated with flowers are used for cuts and wounds [35] and crushed of leaves are applied to the affected areas for bone fracture and scabies, and for snake and scorpion bites. [36]

B. verticillata (L.) G. F. W. Mey. (Syn.: S. verticillata L.), known in Brazil as "poaia", "poaia preta", "poaia miúda", "coroa-de-frade", and "vassourinha", is a small perene and erect herb, originating from South and Central Americas and distributed by the Old World, Southern United States to South America. [9],[37] In Brazil, the infusion of the flowers is used as antipyretic and analgesic, [38],[39] the roots as emetic and leaves as antidiarrheal, and for treat erysipelas and hemorrhoids. [40] In West India, the decoction of this plant is used for diabetes and dysmenorrhea, and when prepared with Cuscuta and Zebrina Schnizlein is used for amenorrhea; [31] while in Senegal it is used to treat bacterial skin infections and leprosy. [41] In Nigeria, fresh aerial part juice is applied for eczema [34] and in Jamaica the decoction of the endocarp, prepared jointly with Iresine P. Browne. and Desmodium, is used as a diuretic and as a remedy for amenorrhea mixed with Cuscuta and Zebrina. [30]

Spermacoce exilis (L.O. Williams) C.D. Adams [Syn.: B. exilis L.O. Williams, B. gracilis L.O. Williams, B. repens DC., S. repens (DC.) Fosberg and J. M. Powell, and S. mauritiana Gideon] is a weak erect, decumbent, or procumbent annual herb distributed in Africa and America and is used for headache. [42]


   Chemical Constituents and Some of Their Biological Activities Top


The widespread uses of Borreria and Spermacoce species in traditional medicine have resulted in considerable chemical investigation of the plants and their active principles. The first phytochemical report was published in 1961, and revealed the detection of (-)-emetina ( 7 ) from roots of B. verticillata. [43] Today, over 60 compounds distributed in different classes have been isolated [Table 1]. Alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids are the main groups of constituents. Among them, alkaloids and iridoids displayed in vivo or in vitro some biological activities.
Table 1: Compounds isolated from Borreria and Spermacoce species

Click here to view


Alkaloids

A total of eleven alkaloids [Table 1] and [Figure 1], containing indole [borrecapine (1), borrecoxine (2), borreline (3), borrerine (4), dehydroborrecapine (6), verticillatine A (10), and verticillatine B (11)], bis-indole [borreverine ( 5 ), isoborreverine (8) and spermacoceine (9)] and tetrahydroisoquinoline [(-)-emetine ( 7 )] skeletons have been isolated from B. capitata, [44],[45],[46] Borreria spp., [47] and B. verticillata. [39],[41],[43],[48],[49],[50],[51],[52] Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of emetine in B. poaya DC., B. suaveolens var. platyphylla (K. Schum.) Standl., B. verbenoides Cham. and Schltdl., and B. verticillata. [48] Among isolated alkaloids, borreverine tartrate showed in vitro antibacterial activity against Sarcina lutea (MIC 3.0 μg/mL),  Vibrio cholerae Scientific Name Search  (MIC 12.5 μg/mL), and Staphyloccocus aureus (MIC 100 μg/mL). [41]
Figure 1: Alkaloids isolated from Borreria species

Click here to view


Emetine ( 7 ) is a tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid that occurs mainly in Psychotria ipecacuanha Stokes (Rubiaceae), also known as Cephaelis ipecacuanha A. Rich. [53],[54] The first use of emetine in medicine was as emetic and expectorant. [55] Later, other properties were being discovered and today several important biological activities are reported for this compound. Among which are anticancer, [56],[57],[58] antiparasitic, [59],[60],[61] antiviral, [62],[63] contraceptive, [64],[65] inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis, reduction of T-2 toxin toxicity association with cells, and inhibition of the nonsense-mediated MRNA decay (NMD) pathway. [63] However, its medicinal use has been discouraged due to its toxicity. [63]

Iridoids

Thirteen iridoids (12-24) have been isolated from B. latifolia, [66] B. verticillata, [38],[39],[67] and S. laevis[27] [Table 1] and [Figure 2]. Among these compounds, asperuloside (12) was claimed as muscle anabolic steroids, [68] inhibited TNF-α, decreased IL-1β prodution, reduced formation of PGE 2 , and treated rheumatoid arthritis in mice. [69] This compound, along with deacetylasperulosidic acid (18) and scandoside (24) exhibited in vitro activity against the Epstein-Barr virus. [70] Deacetylasperulosidic acid (18, 63.8 ± 1.5%) and scandoside (24, 62.2 ± 1.6%), inhibited LDL-oxidation, at 20 μg/ml. [71] Compounds 12, 18 and methyl deacetylasperulosidate (23) showed purgative effects in mice [72] and 23 lowered the blood glucose level in normal mice. [73]

Asperolosidic acid (13) showed weak inhibition against TPA-induced inflammation in mice (ID 50 > 1.0 mg/ear) and exhibited moderate effects against the EBV-EA activation induced by TPA (IC 50 578 mol). [74] It also was effective in suppressing TPA- or EGF-induced cell transformation and associated AP-1 activity. TPA- or EGF-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun was also blocked. [75] Compounds 12, 13, borreriagenin (15), deacetylasperuloside (17), and 6α-hydroxyadoxoside (21) were inactive as antioxidants (IC 50 > 30 μmol) [76],[77] and compounds 13 and 18 did not exhibit hypoglycemic effects in STZ-induced diabetic mice. [78]

Compounds 12 and 13 suppressed germination of large crabgrass, alfalfa, and white clover to 52 and 56, 58 and 80, and 30 and 40%, respectively, at 400 ppm. [79] Compounds 12 and 23 also were tested for their inhibitory activities toward germination and seedling growth of several plant species. Compound 12 inhibited growth of rice and lettuce seedlings at 10 -4 to 10 -3 mol, while 23 had no inhibitory activity. [80] Iridoid 13 did not show any effect in vitro on the soybean lipoxygenase and bovine testis hyaluronidase. [81]

The insecticidal activity of 13, 18, 10-hydroxyloganin (22), and 24 against ants (Crematogaster scutellaris) and termites (Kalotermes flavicollis) was evaluated. Significant levels of toxicity was observed only for 22. [82]
Figure 2: Iridoids and flavonoids isolated from Borreria and Spermacoce species

Click here to view


Flavonoids

Only eight flavonoids (25-32) have been isolated from Borreria and Spermacoce species [Table 1] and [Figure 2]. All are free or glycosides flavonols derivatives and their occurrence are restricting to B. stricta [astragalin (25), quercetin (29) and rutin (32)], [83],[84] B. hispida [isorhamnetin (26)] [26] and S. laevis [kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (27), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (28), quercetin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside (30), quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-galactopyranoside (31), and rutin (32)]. [28]

Terpenoids

The Borreria species also contains pentacyclic triterpenoids of oleanane- and ursane-types [Table 1] and [Figure 3]. From the chloroform extract of the aerial parts and roots of B. auricularis, a plant used in traditional medicine for several purposes, [15],[16] seven triterpenes were isolated [3α-acetoxy-olean-12-en-29-oic acid (33), β-amyrin (34), 3-keto-olean-12-en-29-oic acid (41), epikatonic acid (38), ursolic acid (45), ursolic acid methyl ester (46), and uvaol (47)]. [85],[86],[87] Furthermore, from the essential oil and aerial parts of B. verticillata two sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene (39) and guiaene (40), were isolated, respectively. [34],[88] From the seeds of B. stricta[84] and B. hispida, [89] β-sitosterol (43) and ursolic acid (45) were isolated; and from aerial parts of B. latifolia the diterpene phytol (42) was isolated. [66]
Figure 3: Terpenoids found in Borreria species

Click here to view


Other classes of compounds

Besides the above-mentioned groups of compounds, two benzyl (48-49), four (Z)-3-hexenyl (50-53), three phenylethyl glycosides derivatives (55-57), and a megastigmane glycoside (58) [Table 1] and [Figure 4] were isolated from aerial parts of S. laevis[28] and from aerial parts of B. articularis 6-methyl-5-cyclodecen-1-ol (54) was also isolated. [16] This compound exhibited antibacterial (MIC 500-2000 μg/mL and MBC 1000-3000 μg/mL) and antifungal (MIC 750-1500 mg/mL and MFC 1500-3000 mg/mL) activities against Aspergillus niger, A. ustus, A. ochraceus, Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, C. albicans, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. dysenteriae, S. sonnei, S. typhi, S. paratyphi, and V. cholerae. [16]
Figure 4: Miscellaneous compounds found in Borreria and Spermacoce species

Click here to view


From B. stricta[83],[84] and B. articularis[85] two alcohols (59-60) and four carboxylic acids (61-64) were isolated [Table 1] and [Figure 4]. In addition, seventeen amino acids, including a protein and three carbohydrates have been identified from the leaves and seeds of B. stricta. [83],[84] A recent study on B. verticillata roots has led to the isolation of mixtures of aliphatic acids, tri-O-acylglycerols and sucrose, and glucose and sucrose. [39]

Volatile components

Fatty acids, monoterpenoids, aromatic compound, and alcohol were identified by GC-MS from S. ocymoides[90] and some fatty acids and terpenoids, such as linalool, eugenol, β-bisabolene, E-β-farnesene, phytol and terpineol, [91] guaiene, [34] and phytol, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and p-cymene [92] were identified by GC-MS from the aerial parts of B. verticillata.


   Biological Activities of Crude Extracts Top


Borreria and Spermacoce species possess a wide variety of medicinal properties. So far, a few species have been screened for confirmation of their biological activities. Experimental results have shown some species as antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, etc. The various biological activities reported from different extracts of Borreria and Spermacoce species are summarized in [Table 2].
Table 2: Biological activities for crude extracts and fractions of Borreria and Spermacoce species

Click here to view



   Conclusions Top


Given the small of species chemically studied, no definite conclusions can be drawn about chemical relationships among Borreria and Spermacoce species. However, the classes of compounds found are suggestive of chemical patterns in the tribe Spermacoceae. The most representative classes of compounds found were mainly alkaloids (only Borreria species) and iridoids (in two genera) which have been found in species from America (e.g. B. capitata and B. verticillata), Europe and Africa (e.g. B. verticillata) and Asia (e.g. B. latifolia and S. laevis) as well as in species of other genera of Spermacoceae. Flavonoids were found only in species from Asia (B. hispida, B. stricta, and S. laevis). Thus, the common possession of alkaloids and iridoids by few groups of species should be viewed as retention of an ancient characteristic or as a mark of natural affinity. Therefore, a molecular phylogeny of Borreria and Spermacoce, including plants with known chemistry, would be extremely helpful to clarify trends in the chemical evolution of the genera.


   Acknowledgments Top


This work was supported by grants from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Alagoas (FAPEAL), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia-Instituto do Milênio do Semi-Árido (MCT-IMSEAR), and Banco do Nordeste-Rede Nordestina de Biotecnologia (BNB-RENORBIO).[111]

 
   References Top

1.Taylor CM, Steyermark JA, Delprete PG, Vicentini A, Cortés R, Zappi D, et al. Rubiaceae. In: Steyermark JA, Steyermark JS, Berry PE, Holst BK, editors. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. St. Louis: USA; Missouri Botanical Garden Press; 2004. p. 497- 848.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Bremer B, Manen JF. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Syst Evol 2009;225:43- 72.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Pereira ZV, Carvalho-Okano RM, Garcia FC. Rubiaceae Juss. da Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil. Acta Bot Bras 2006;20:207-24.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Souza VC, Lorenzi H. Botânica sistemática: Guia ilustrado para identificação das famílias de angiospermas da flora brasileira, baseado em APG II. São Paulo: Nova Odessa; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Margalho LF, Sousa da Rocha AE, Secco RS. Rubiaceae Juss. da restinga da APA de Algodoal/Maiandeua, Maracanã, Pará, Brasil. Bol. Mus Para Emílio Goeldi. Cienc Nat 2009;4:303-39.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Chaw SM, Sivarajan VV. Seed coat micromorphology of some Asiatic Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae). Bot Bull Acad Sin 1989;30:15-24.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Kårehe J, Groeninckx I, Dessein S, Motley TJ, Bremer B. The phylogenetic utility of chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers and the phylogeny of the Rubiaceae tribe Spermacoceae. Mol Phylogenet Evol 2008;49:843-66.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Dessein S, Robbrecht E, Smets E. A new heterophyllous Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae) from the Marungu highlands (D. R. Congo). Novon 2006;16:231-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Chiquieri A, Di Maio FR, Peixoto AL. A distribuição geográfica da família Rubiaceae Juss. na Flora Brasiliensis de Martius. Rodriguésia 2004;55:47-57.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Barbosa MR, Sothers C, Mayo S, Gamarra-Rojas CF, Mesquita CA. Checklist das Plantas do Nordeste Brasileiro: Angiospermas e Gymnospermas. Brasilia: Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia;  2006.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Dessein S, Huysmans, S, Robrecht E, Smets E. Pollen of African Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae). Morphology and evolutionary aspects. Grana 2002;41:69-89.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Machado IC, Loiola MI. Fly pollination and pollinator sharing in two synchronopatric species: Cordia multispicata (Boraginaceae) and Borreria alata (Rubiaceae). Rev Bras Bot 2000;23:305-11.   Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 2007;55:1-584. Available from http://botany.si.edu/bdg/pdf/vol55web.pdf  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Manandlar NP. An inventory of some vegetable drug resources of Makawanpur district Nepal. Fitoterapia 1995;66:231-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Vadivelan S, Sinha BN, Betanabhatla KS, Christina AJ, Pillai RN. Anti-inflammatory activity of Spermacoce articularis Linn on carrageenan induced paw edema in Wistar male rats. Pharmacologyonline 2007;3:478-84.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Sultana R, Rahman MS, Bhuiyan MN, Begum J, Anwar MN. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of Borreria articularis. Bangladesh J Microbiol 2008;25:95-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Jain SP, Verma DM. Medicinal plants in the folklore of Northeast Haryana. Natl Acad Sci Lett (India) 1981;4:269-71.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Lucas V, Machado O. Medical Rubiaceae of Brazil. Rev Flora Med 1944;11:3-36.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Brandão MG, Cosenza GP, Grael CF, Netto Junior NL, Monte-Mór RL. Traditional uses of American plant species from the 1 st edition of Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2009;19:478-87.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Steefeld C. What the Herbalists of Pelotas (Brazil). Sell Pharm Biol 1968;8:1300-3.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Bandoni AL, Mendiondo ME, Rondina RV, Coussio JD. Survey of Argentina medicinal plants. Folklore and phytochemical screening. II. Econ Bot 1976;30:161-85.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Martinez-Crovetto R. Fertility-regulating plants used in popular medicine in Northeastern Argentina. Parodiana 1981;1:97-117.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Perez C, Anesini C. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Argentinean medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 1994;65:169-72.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Vasanthi HR, Mukherjee S, Lekli I, Ray D, Veeraraghavan G, Das DK. Potential role of Borreria hispida in ameliorating cardiovascular risk factors. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2009;53:499-06.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Khan SS, Chaghtai SA, Oommachan M. Medicinal plants of Rubiaceae of Bhopal - An Ethnobotanical study. J Scient Res (Bhopal) 1984;6:37-9.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Purushothaman KK, Kalyani K. Isolation of isorhamnetin from Borreria hispida Linn. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeop. 1979;14:131-2.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Kaviarasan K, Kalaiarasi P, Pugalendi V. Antioxidant efficacy of flavonoid-rich fraction from Spermacoce hispida in hyperlipidemic rats. J Appl Biomed 2008;6:165-76.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Noiarsa P, Yu Q, Matsunami K, Otsuka H, Ruchirawat S, Kanchanapoom T. (Z)-3-hexenyl diglycosides from Spermacoce laevis Roxb. J Nat Med 2007;61:406-9.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Zamora-Martinez MC, Pola CN. Medicinal plants used in some rural populations of Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico. J Ethnopharmacol 1992;35:229-57.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Asprey GF, Thornton P. Medicinal plants of Jamaica. IV. West Indian Med J 1955;4:145-65.   Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Ayensu ES. Medicinal plants of the West Indies. Unpublished Manuscript 1978; 110pp.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Pereira ZV, Gomes CF, Lobtchenko G, Gomes ME, Simões PD, Saruwatari RP, et al. Levantamento das plantas medicinais do cerrado Sensu Stricto da Fazenda Paraíso - Dourados, MS. Rev Bras Biociênc 2007;5:249-51.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Ebana RU, Madunagu BE, Ekpe ED, Otung IN. Microbiological exploitation of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoides, Kola nitida and Citrus aurantifolia. J Appl Bacteriol 1991;71:398-401.   Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Benjamin TV. Investigation of Borreria verticillata, an antieczematic plant of Nigeria. Quart J Crude Drug Res 1979;17:135-6.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Shah GL, Gopal GV. Ethnomedical notes from the tribal inhabitants of the North Gujarat (India). J Econ Taxon Bot 1985;6:193-201.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.Rahman MA, Uddin SB, Wilcock CC. Medicinal plants used by Chakma tribe in Hill districts of Bangledesh. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2007;6:508-17.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Burger W, Taylor CM. Flora Costaricensis. Fieldiana 1993;33:1- 333.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.Vieira IJ, Mathias L, Braz-Filho R, Schripsema J. Iridoids from Borreria verticillata. Org Lett 1999;1:1169-71.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.Moreira VF, Oliveira RR, Mathias L, Braz-Filho R, Vieira IJ. New chemical constituents from Borreria verticillata (Rubiaceae). Helv Chim Acta 2010;93:1751-7.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.Lorenzi H, Matos FJ. Plantas medicinais do Brasil. São Paulo: Nova Odessa; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Maynart G, Pousset JL, Mboup S, Denis F. Antibacterial activity of borreverine, an alkaloid isolated from Borreria verticillata (Rubiaceae). C R Seances Soc Biol Fil 1980;174:925-8.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.Saha K, Lajis NH, Israf DA, Hamzah AS, Khozirah S, Khamis S, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibitory activities of selected Malaysian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;92:263-7.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.Willaman JJ, Schubert BG. Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Techical Bulletin nº 1234, 1961; 287pp.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.Joessang A, Jacquemin H, Pousset JL, Cave A, Damak M, Riche C. Structure of borreline, a new indolic alkaloid. Tetrahedron Lett 1977a;14:1219-20.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.Jossang A, Pousset JL, Jacquemin H, Cave A. Structure of borrecapine, a new indole alkaloid. Tetrahedron Lett 1977b;49:4317-8.   Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.Jossang A, Jacquemin H, Pousset JL, Cave A. Alkaloids of Borreria capitata. Planta Med 1981;43:301-4.   Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.Damak M, Riche C. Structure and stereochemistry of indolic alkaloids. III. Crystal and molecular structure of borreline. Acta Crystallogr B: Struct Crystallogr Cryst Chem B 1977;33:3415-8.   Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.Moreira EA. Identification of emetine in some Borreria species (paper chromatography). Trib Farmac (Brazil) 1964;32:9-30.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.Pousset JL, Kerharo J, Maynart G, Monseur X, Cave A, Goutarel R. Borrerine. New alkaloid isolated from Borreria verticillata. Phytochemistry 1973;12:2308-10.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.Poussett JL, Cave A, Chiaroni A, Riche C. A novel bis-indole alkaloid. X-ray crystal structure determination of borreverine and its rearrangement product on diacetylation. J Chem Soc Chem Comm 1977;8:261-2.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.Ferreira MA, Branco CS, Sliwoski JK. Chemical study of alkaloids in Borreria verticillata (L.) G.F.W. Meyer. Lloydia 1978;41:655.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.Baldé AM, Pieters LA, Gergely A, Wray V, Claeys M, Vlietinck AJ. Spermacoceine, a bis-indole alkaloid from Borreria verticillata. Phytochemistry 1991;30:997-1000.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.Wiegrebe W, Kramer WJ, Shamma M. The emetine alkaloids. J Nat Prod 1984;47:397-408.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.Garcia RM, Oliveira LO, Moreira MA, Barros WS. Variation in emetine and cephaeline contents in roots of wild ipecac (Psychotria ipecacuanha). Biochem Syst Ecol 2005;33:233-43.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.Grollman AP. Structural basis for inhibition of protein synthesis by emetine and cycloheximide based on an analogy between ipecac alkaloids and glutarimide antibiotics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1966;56:1867-74.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.Mastrangelo MJ, Grage TB, Bellet RE, Weiss AJ. A phase I study of emetine hydrochloride (NSC 33669) in solid tumors. Cancer 1973;31:1170-5.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.Siddiqui S, Firat D, Olshin S. Phase II study of emetine (NSC-33669) in the treatment of solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Rep 1973;57:423-8.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.Moertel CG, Schutt AJ, Hahn RG, Reitemeier RJ. Treatment of advanced gastrointestinal cancer with emetine (NCS-33669). Cancer Chemother Rep 1974;58:229-32.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.Muhammad I, Dunbar DC, Khan SI, Tekwani BL, Bedir E, Takamatsu S, et al. Antiparasitic alkaloids from Psychotria klugii. J Nat Prod 2003;66:962-7.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.Cavin JC, Krassner SM, Rodriguez E. Plant-derived alkaloids active against Trypanosoma cruzi. J Ethnopharmacol 1987;19:89-4.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.Mackey ZB, Baca AM, Mallari JP, Apsel B, Shelat A, Hansell EJ, et al. Discovery of trypanocidal compounds by whole cell HTS of Trypanosoma brucei. Chem Biol Drug Des 2006;67:355-63.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.Low YJ, Chen KC, Wu KX, Mah-Lee NM, Chu HJ. Antiviral activity of emetine dihydrochloride against dengue virus infection. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2009;1:62-71.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.Akinboye ES, Bakare O. Biological activities of emetine. Open Nat Prod J 2011;4:8-15.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.Moyer DL, Thompson RS, Berger I. Anti-implantation action of a medicated intrauterine delivery system (MIDS). Contraception 1977;16:39-49.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.Mehrotra PK, Kitchlu S, Dwivedi A, Agnihotri PK, Srivastava S, Roy R, et al. Emetine ditartrate: a possible lead for emergency contraception. Contraception 2004;69:379-87.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.Kamiya K, Fujita Y, Saiki Y, Hanani E, Mansur U, Satake T. Studies on the constituents of Indonesian Borreria latifolia. Heterocycles 2002;56:537-44.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.Sainty D, Bailleul F, Delaveau P, Jacquemin H. Iridoids of Borreria verticillata. Planta Med 1981;42:260-4.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.Fujikawa T, Kawamura N. Asperuloside and its analogs from Eucommia ulmoides extracts as muscle anabolic steroids. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 2009; JP 2009209088.   Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.Li B. Application of asperuloside for preparing drugs for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing 2007;CN 1915236.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.Kapadia GJ, Sharma SC, Tokuda H, Nishino H, Ueda S. Inhibitory effect of iridoids on Epstein-Barr virus activation by a short-term in vitro assay for anti-tumor promoters. Cancer Lett 1996;102:223-6.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.Kim DH, Lee HJ, Oh YJ, Kim MJ, Kim SH, Jeong TS, et al. Iridoid glycosides isolated from Oldenlandia diffusa inhibits LDL-oxidation. Arch Pharm Res 2005;28:1156-60.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.Inouye H, Takeda Y, Uobe K, Yamauchi K, Yabuuchi N, Kuwano S. Purgative activities of iridoid glucosides. Planta Med 1974;25:285-8.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.Miura T, Nishiyama Y, Ichimaru M, Moriyasu M, Kato A. Hypoglycemic activity and structure-activity relationship of iridoidal glycosides. Biol Pharm Bull 1996;19:160-1.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.Akihisa T, Matsumoto K, Tokuda H, Yasukawa K, Seino K, Nakamoto K, et al. Anti-inflammatory and potential cancer chemopreventive constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). J Nat Prod 2007;70:754-7.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.Liu G, Bode A, Ma WY, Sang S, Ho CT, Dong Z. Two novel glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) inhibit AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 cell line. Cancer Res 2001;61:5749-56.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.Permana D, Lajis NH, Abas F, Othman AG, Ahmad R, Kitajima M, et al. Antioxidative constituents of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. Nat Prod Sci 2003;9:7-9.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.Su B-N, Pawlus AD, Jung H-A, Keller WJ, McLaughlin JL, Kinghorn AD. Chemical constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) and their antioxidant activity. J Nat Prod 2005;68:592-5.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.Kamiya K, Hamabe W, Harada S, Murakami R, Tokuyama S, Satake T. Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia roots exhibit hypoglycemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2008;31:935-8.  Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.Komai K, Iwamura J, Hamada M, Ueki K. Plant growth inhibitors in catchweed seeds and their allelopathy. Zasso Kenkyu 1986;31:280-6.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.Komai K, Nakasugi T, Tujii I, Miura M, Hamada M. Plant growth inhibitory activities of iridoid glucosides. Zasso Kenkyu 1990;35:44-52.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.Ling SK, Tanaka T, Kouno I. Effects of iridoids on lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase activities and their activation by â-glucosidase in the presence of amino acids. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26:352-6.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.Tzakou O, Mylonas P, Vagias C, Petrakis PV. Iridoid glucosides with insecticidal activity from Galium melanantherum. Z Naturforsch C: J Biosci 2007;62:597-602.  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.Bhadoria BK, Gupta RK. Chemical constituents of Borreria stricta Linn. J Indian Chem Soc 1981;58:202-3.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.Sharma KM, Gupta RK. Chemical constituents of Borreria stricta seeds. Fitoterapia 1987;58:135-6.  Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.Mukherjee KS, Manna TK, Laha S, Chakravorty CK. Phytochemical investigation of Borreria articularis Linn. J Indian Chem Soc 1993;70:609-10.  Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.Mukherjee KS, Manna TK, Laha S, Brahmachari G. Chemical investigation of Limnophila heterophylla and Borreria articularis. J Indian Chem Soc 1994;71:655-6.  Back to cited text no. 86
    
87.Mukherjee KS, Mukhopadhyay B, Mondal S, Gorai D, Brahmachari G. Triterpenoid constituents of Borreria articularis. J Chinese Chem Soc 2004;51:229-31.  Back to cited text no. 87
    
88.Benjamin TV. Analysis of the volatile constituents of local plants used for skin disease. J Afr Med Pl 1980;3:135-9.  Back to cited text no. 88
    
89.Kapoor SK, Prakash L, Zaman A. Chemical constituents of Borreria hispida. Indian J Appl Chem 1969;32:402-3.  Back to cited text no. 89
    
90.Ekpendu TO, Ekundayo O, Laakso I. Constituents of the volatile oil of Spermacoce ocymoides (Syn. Borreria scrabra) (Rubiaceae). J Chem Soc Nigeria 2002;27:147-9.  Back to cited text no. 90
    
91.Ekpendu TO, Ekundayo O, Laakso I. Constituents and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil of Spermacoce verticillata Linn - a Nigerian medicinal rubiaceous weed. J Chem Soc Nigeria 2001;26:194-8.  Back to cited text no. 91
    
92.Ogunwande IA, Walker TM, Bansal A, Setzer WN, Essien EE. Essential oil constituents and biological activities of Peristrophe bicalyculata and Borreria verticillata. Nat Prod Comm 2010;5:1815-8.  Back to cited text no. 92
    
93.Andre R, Delaveau P, Jacquemin H. Phytochemical research on several Madagascan Rubiaceae plant. Med Phytother 1976;10:233-42.  Back to cited text no. 93
    
94.Baruah PP, Goswami PK. Allelopathic effects of Borreria hispida on seedling growth and yield in Brassica campestris L. Int J Environ Biotech 2009;2:328-31.  Back to cited text no. 94
    
95.Sousa MP, Matos FJ, Tavares T. Systematic analysis in phytochemistry. Rev Bras Farm 1969;50:65-72.  Back to cited text no. 95
    
96.Peixoto Neto PA, Silva MV, Campos NV, Porfirio Z, Caetano LC. Antibacterial activity of Borreria verticillata roots. Fitoterapia 2002;73:529-31.  Back to cited text no. 96
    
97.Sripathi SK, Sankari U. Ethnobotanical documentation of a few medicinal plants in the Agasthiayamalai region of Tirunelveli District, India. Ethnobot Leafl 2010;14:173-81.  Back to cited text no. 97
    
98.Kottai Muthu A, Sravanthi P, Kumar DS, Smith AA, Manavalan R. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of various extracts of whole plant of Borreria hispida (Linn). Int J Pharm Sci Res 2010;1:127- 30.  Back to cited text no. 98
    
99.Parthasarathy G. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Spermacoce hispida Linn. J Pharm Res 2010;3:1516-7.  Back to cited text no. 99
    
100.Kaviarasan K, Pugalendi KV. Influence of flavonoid-rich fraction from Spermacoce hispida seed on PPAR-alpha gene expression, antioxidant redox status, protein metabolism and marker enzymes in high-fat-diet fed STZ diabetic rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2009;20:141-58.  Back to cited text no. 100
    
101.Selvin CD, Muthu AK. Lipid lowering effect of various extracts of whole plant of Borreira hispida (Linn) in rat fed with high fat diet. Asian J Chem 2011;23:2639-42.   Back to cited text no. 101
    
102.Surveswaran S, Cai YZ, Corke H, Sun M. Systematic evaluation of natural phenolic antioxidants from 133 Indian medicinal plants. Food Chem 2007;102:938-53.  Back to cited text no. 102
    
103.Shajiselvin CD, Kottai Muthu A. In-vitro antioxidant studies of various extracts of whole plant of Borreria hispida (Linn). Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2010;1:14-20.  Back to cited text no. 103
    
104.Aswal BS, Bhakuni DS, Goel AK, Kar K, Mehrotra BN, Mukherjee KC. Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 1984;22:312-32.  Back to cited text no. 104
    
105.Okwuosa CN, Nwachukwu DC, Achukwu PU, Ezeorah CG, Eze AA. Anti-ulcer activity of the leaf extracts of Borreria ocymoides in rats. Bio-Research 2009;7 (Abstract): Available from http://www.ajol.info/index.php/br/article/view/45471.  Back to cited text no. 105
    
106.Chitra M, Farook NA, Nalini R, Mozhiarasi PP. Hepatoprotective activity of Borreria articularis (Linn.) against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. Asian J Chem 2007;19:923-7.  Back to cited text no. 106
    
107.Rathi MA, Thirumoorthi L, Sunitha M, Meenakshi P, Gurukumar D, Gopalakrishnan VK. Hepatoprotective activity of Spermacoce hispida Linn. extract against nitrobenzene induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J Herb Med Toxicol 2010;4:201-5.  Back to cited text no. 107
    
108.Oliveira PV, Ferreira Júnior JC, Moura FS, Lima GS, de Oliveira FM, Oliveira PE, et al. Larvicidal activity of 94 extracts from ten plant species of northeastern of Brazil against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 2010;107:403-7.  Back to cited text no. 108
    
109.Adewunmi CO, Marquis VO. A rapid in vitro screening method for detecting schistomicidal activity of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Int J Crude Drug Res 1983;21:157-9.  Back to cited text no. 109
    
110.Barros GS, Matos FJ, Vieira JE, Sousa MP, Medeiros MC. Pharmacological screening of some Brazilian plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 1970;22:116-22.  Back to cited text no. 110
    
111.Bouzada ML, Fabri RL, Nogueira M, Konno TU, Duarte GG, Scio E. Antibacterial, cytotoxic and phytochemical screening of some traditional medicinal plants in Brazil. Pharm Biol 2009;47:44-52.  Back to cited text no. 111
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


This article has been cited by
1 An overview of the genus Prismatomeris : Phytochemistry and biological activity
Ninh The Son
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 A new anthraquinone and a new naphthoquinone from the whole plant of Spermacoce latifolia
Ying Luo,Hai-Yan Shen,Qing-Xiang Shen,Zhao-Hui Cao,Min Zhang,Shi-Yin Long,Zong-Bao Wang,Jian-Wen Tan
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research. 2017; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Plant extract as environmental-friendly green catalyst for the reduction of hexavalent chromium in tannery effluent
Preethi Johnson,Chitra Loganathan,Vennila Krishnan,Penislusshiyan Sakayanathan,Vijayan Raji,Sudha Vijayan,Palanivel Sathishkumar,Kumarasamy Murugesan,Thayumanavan Palvannan
Environmental Technology. 2017; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Effects of feeding the herb Borreria latifolia on the meat quality of village chickens in Malaysia
Ali. A. Abbood,Azhar Bin Kassim,Hasan S. A. Jawad,Yazid Abdul Manap,Awis Qurni Sazili
Poultry Science. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Chemical study of Anthospermum emirnense (Rubiaceae)
Tiana Sylvia Ralambonirina Rasoarivelo,Raphaël Grougnet,Sylvie Michel,Christiane Rakotobe Guillou,Brigitte Deguin
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2017; 70: 186
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Computational study of some amoebicidal phytochemicals against heat shock protein of Naegleria fowleri
Zarrin Basharat,Shumaila Zaib,Azra Yasmin
Gene Reports. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Cytotoxicity of 91 Kenyan indigenous medicinal plants towards human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells
Leonidah K. Omosa,Jacob O. Midiwo,Veronica M. Masila,Boniface M. Gisacho,Renee Munayi,Renee Francisca-Kamakama,Kitur Phylis Chemutai,Gihan Elhaboob,Mohamed E.M. Saeed,Sami Hamdoun,Victor Kuete,Thomas Efferth
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016; 179: 177
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 A new ursane and a new oleanane triterpene acids from the whole plant of Spermacoce latifolia
Ying Luo,Qiao-Lin Xu,Li-Mei Dong,Zhong-Yu Zhou,Yu-Chan Chen,Wei-Min Zhang,Jian-Wen Tan
Phytochemistry Letters. 2015; 11: 127
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial potentials of Borreria sps (Rubiaceae)
Kin-Ying Wong,Paritala Vikram,Kishore K. Chiruvella,Arifullah Mohammed
Journal of King Saud University - Science. 2015; 27(4): 302
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the siaresinolic acid, a triterpene isolated from the leaves of Sabicea grisea Cham. & Schltdl. var. grisea
Anderson Marques de Oliveira,Almair Ferreira de Araújo,Rosangela P. Lyra Lemos,Lucia M. Conserva,Jamylle Nunes de Souza Ferro,Emiliano Barreto
Journal of Natural Medicines. 2015; 69(2): 232
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Endophytic microorganisms from leaves of spermacoce verticillata (l.): Diversity and antimicrobial activity
Conti, R. and Cunha, I.G.B. and Siqueira, V.M. and Souza-Motta, C.M. and Amorim, E.L.C. and Araújo, J.M.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2012; 2(12): 17-22
[Pubmed]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Chemical Constit...
    Biological Activ...
   Conclusions
   Acknowledgments
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed6070    
    Printed184    
    Emailed2    
    PDF Downloaded23    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 11    

Recommend this journal