Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Login 
Pharmacognosy Reviews
Search Article 
Advanced search 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 19-29  

α-glucosidase inhibitors from plants: A natural approach to treat diabetes

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra - 136 119, Haryana, India

Date of Submission15-May-2010
Date of Web Publication6-Apr-2011

Correspondence Address:
Vipin Kumar
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra -136 119, Haryana
Login to access the Email id

DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.79096

PMID: 22096315

Get Permissions


Diabetes is a common metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high plasma glucose levels, leading to major complications, such as diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases. One of the effective managements of diabetes mellitus, in particular, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to decrease postprandial hyperglycemia, is to retard the absorption of glucose by inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase, in the digestive organs. α-Glucosidase is the key enzyme catalyzing the final step in the digestive process of carbohydrates. Hence, α-glucosidase inhibitors can retard the liberation of d-glucose from dietary complex carbohydrates and delay glucose absorption, resulting in reduced postprandial plasma glucose levels and suppression of postprandial hyperglycemia. In recent years, many efforts have been made to identify effective α-glucosidase inhibitors from natural sources in order to develop a physiologic functional food or lead compounds for use against diabetes. Many α-glucosidase inhibitors that are phytoconstituents, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids,anthocyanins, glycosides, phenolic compounds, and so on, have been isolated from plants. In the present review, we focus on the constituents isolated from different plants having α-glucosidase inhibitory potency along with IC50 values.

Keywords: Alkaloids, anthocyanins, diabetes, flavonoids, α-glucosidase, glycosides, terpenoids

How to cite this article:
Kumar S, Narwal S, Kumar V, Prakash O. α-glucosidase inhibitors from plants: A natural approach to treat diabetes. Phcog Rev 2011;5:19-29

How to cite this URL:
Kumar S, Narwal S, Kumar V, Prakash O. α-glucosidase inhibitors from plants: A natural approach to treat diabetes. Phcog Rev [serial online] 2011 [cited 2014 Sep 23];5:19-29. Available from: http://www.phcogrev.com/text.asp?2011/5/9/19/79096

   Introduction Top

Diabetes mellitus is the most serious, chronic metabolic disorder and is characterized by high blood glucose levels. One therapeutic approach to treat diabetes is to retard the absorption of glucose via inhibition of enzymes, such as α-glucosidase, in the digestive organs. [1],[2] α-Glucosidase (α-d-glucoside glucohydrolase) is an exo-type carbohydrase distributed widely in microorganisms, plants, and animal tissues,[3] which catalyzes the liberation of α-glucose from the non reducing end of the substrate. Inhibiting this enzyme slows the elevation of blood sugar following a carbohydrate meal. [4] It is a membrane bound enzyme present in the epithelium of the small intestine, which works to facilitate the absorption of glucose by the small intestine by catalyzing the hydrolytic cleavage of oligosaccharides into absorbable [Figure 1] monosaccharides. [5]
Figure 1: Conversion of oligosaccharide to glucose

Click here to view

By the inhibition of α-glucosidase in the intestine, the rate of hydrolytic cleavage of oligosaccharide is decreased and the process of carbohydrate digestion spreads to the lower part of small intestine. This spreading of digestion process delays the overall absorption rate of glucose into the blood. This has proved to be one of the best strategies to decrease the postprandial rise in blood glucose and in turn help avoiding the onset of late diabetic complications. [5]

There are reports of the presence of α-glucosidase inhibitors, such as acarbose [6],[7] andvoglibose, [8] in microorganisms, and nojirimycin [9],[10],[11] and 1-deoxynojirimycin [11] in plants, as well as the effects of α-glucosidase inhibitor in wheat kernels on blood glucose levels after food uptake. [12]

α-Glucosidase inhibitory potency of plant extracts and isolated compounds from different origins are discussed in [Table 1].
Table 1: Extracts/phytoconstituents having α -glucosidase inhibition activity

Click here to view

   α-Glucosidase Inhibition by Flavonoids Top

The inhibitory activity of six groups of flavonoids against α-glucosidase in yeast and rat small intestine was compared, and the chemical structures of flavonoids responsible for the inhibitory activity were evaluated. Yeast α-glucosidase was potently inhibited by the anthocyanidin, isoflavone, and flavonol groups with the IC50 values less than 15 μM. Rat's small intestinal α-glucosidase was weakly inhibited by many flavonoids, and slightly by the anthocyanidin and isoflavone groups.[13]

All the six groups of flavonoids with their chemical structures [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Some of the phytochemicals with their chemical structures

Click here to view

One flavonoid glycoside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl (1'''→2″)-β-d-galactopyranoside(7) from Alstonia scholaris inhibited only maltase with IC 50 values of 1.96 mM. [14]

   Alkaloids Top

Methanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees was tested in screening experiments for rat intestinal α-glucosidase. Vasicine (8) and Vasicinol (9), which were isolated by assay-guided fractionation of this extract, showed a high sucrase inhibitory activity with IC 50 values 125 and 250 μM, respectively. Both of these compounds were shown to be reversible inhibitors of sucrase. [15]

Three alkaloids named piperumbellactam A (10), piperumbellactam B (11) and piperumbellactam C (12) were isolated from branches of Piper umbellatum and these compounds showed moderate α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition with IC 50 values 98.07 ± 0.44, 43.80 ± 0.56, and 29.64 ± 0.46, respectively. [16]

The methanolic extract from flower buds of Tussilago farfara showed the highest maltase inhibitory activity, with maltose as a substrate. Enzyme assay-guided fractionation of this extract afforded 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (13), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (14), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (15). Comparison of the activities of these three compounds with others, such as chlorogenic acid (16), quinic acid (17), and caffeic acid (18), suggested that the number of caffeoyl groups attached to a quinic acid core were important for the potency. [17]


The dried Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae) fruits were extracted using 70% methanol at room temperature and its mammalian α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was investigated. It was found to have a potent rat intestinal maltase inhibitory activity. Three active ellagitannins, identified as chebulanin (19), chebulagic acid (20), and chebulinic acid (21) were isolated using bioassay-guided separation. All the three compounds were shown to possess potent intestinal maltase inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 690, 97, and 36 μM, respectively. [18]

The extraction and fractionation of 50% aqueous methanolic extracts of Bergenia cilata led to the isolation of two active compounds, namely, (-)-3-O-galloylepicatechin (22) and (-)-3-O-galloylcatechin (23). These isolated compounds demonstrated significant dose dependent enzyme inhibitory activities against rat intestinal α-glucosidase. The IC 50 values of (-)-3-O-galloylepicatechin are 560 and 334 μM for sucrose and maltase, respectively, and that of (-)-3-O-galloylcatechin are 297 and 150 μM for sucrose and maltase, respectively. [19]


Two bromophenols, 2, 4, 6-tribromophenol (24) and 2,4-dibromophenol (25), were purified from Grateloupia elliptica. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of these compounds against ?-glucosidasesα-glucosidases was determined compared with acarbose and voglibose. The IC 50 values of compounds (24) and (25) against Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucosidase were 60.3 and 110.4 μM, respectively, which were lower than the 130.3 and 230.3 μM that was presented against the  Bacillus stearothermophilus Scientific Name Search mophilus α-glucosidase.[20] The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of compound (24) against S. cerevisiae and B. stearothermophilus α-glucosidases were also higher than that for compound (25). [1] It is to be concluded that inhibitory potencies of bromophenol increased with increasing degree of bromo-substitution per benzene ring and with decreasing degree of methyl-substitution. [20] Voglibose and acarbose had high inhibitory effects on mammalian α-glucosidase, but no inhibitory activity against S. cerevisiae α-glucosidase. [21],[22],[23]

Bioassay-guided screening indicated that the defatted EtOH extract of the seeds of Syagrus romanzoffiana showed 55% inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. Further fractionation indicated the active ingredients to be concentrated in the BuOH soluble fraction, having 73% inhibition at 10 μg/mL level. This fraction was further separated over Sephadex LH-20 and low pressure RP-18 columns that eventually yielded eight active compounds Of these, seven are stilbenoids, and two of them, 13-hydroxykompasinol A (26) and scirpusin C (27), possess potent inhibitory activity against α- glucosidase type IV from B. stearothermophilus with the IC 50 value of 6.5 and 4.9 μM, respectively. The IC 50 values of other less potent α-glucosidase inhibitors from this plant are kompasinol A (28) (IC 50 = 11.2), scirpusin A (29) (IC 50 = 8.3), pentahydroxystilbene (30) (IC 50 = 19.2), Piceatannol (31) (IC 50 = 23.2), and resveratrol (32) (IC 50 = 23.9). [24]

One lignan glucoside, (-)-lyoniresinol 3a-O-b-d-glucopyranoside (33), from Alstonia scholaris exhibited an inhibitory activity against both sucrase and maltase with IC 50 values of 1.95 and 1.43 mM, respectively. [14]


Natural curcumin (34), demethoxycurcumin (35) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (36) isolated from Curcuma longa (turmeric) were evaluated in vitro for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity via UV and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results indicated that natural curcuminoid compound 36 showed a remarkable inhibitory effect with IC 50 of 23.0 μM. [25]


3b-Acetoxy-16b-hydroxybetulinic acid (37) was isolated from Fagara tessmannii, and it was found to be a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor with IC 50 value 7.6 ± 0.6. [26]

A new triterpenoid saponin Segetalic acid 28-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-fucopyranosyl ester (38) has been isolated and elucidated from the roots of Gypsophila oldhamiana and has been evaluated for its α-glucosidase inhibition activity with the IC 50 values of about 23.1 ± 1.8 μM. [27]


Cyanidin-3-galactoside (39), a natural anthocyanin, was also investigated for its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The IC 50 value of cyanidin-3-galactoside was 0.50 ± 0.05 mM against intestinal sucrase. A low dose of cyanidin-3-galactoside showed a synergistic inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) when combined with acarbose. [28]

Maltase (m); Sucrase (s), 2R,3R,4R,5R)2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine (DMDP); 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ)

   Discussion Top

Diabetes is one of the world's greatest health problems, affecting about 171 million people and most of these will be dominated by those suffering from type 2 diabetes. [68] This increasing trend in type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a serious medical concern worldwide, which accounts for 9% of deaths that prompts every effort in exploring for new therapeutic agents to stem its progress. Although the drug treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus has been improved to some extent during the last decade, drug resistance is still a big concern that needs to be dealt with effective approaches. One of the strategies to monitor blood glucose for type II diabetes mellitus is to either inhibit or reduce the production of glucose from the small intestine. α-Glucosidase inhibitors interfere with the digestion of carbohydrates, achieving better glycemic control. Thus, natural products of great structural diversity are still a good source for searching for such inhibitors, thereby motivating to explore biologically active compounds from the highly diverse plants.

   References Top

1.Kim KY, Nam KA, Kurihara H, Kim SM. Potent á-glucosidase inhibitors purified from the red alga Grateloupia elliptica. Phytochem 2008;69:2820-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Holman RR, Cull CA, Turner RC. A randomized double-blind trial of acarbose in type 2 diabetes shows improved glycemic control over 3 years. Diabetes Care 1999;22:960-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Kimura K, Lee JH, Lee IS, Lee HS, Park KH, Chiba S. Two potent competitive inhibitors discriminating alpha-glucosidase family I from family II. Carbohydr Res 2004;339:1035-40  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Lebovitz H. E. á-Glucosidase inhibitors. Endocrinol Metab Clin North. 1997;26:539-551.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Irfan Baig. Phytochemical studies on Ferula mongolica and other mongolian medicinal plants. Ph.D. Thesis, International Centre for Chemical Sciences, University of Karachi (2002).  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Truscheit E, Frommer W, Junge B, Muller L, Schmidit DD, Wingender W. Chemistry and biochemistry of microbial alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Agew Chem Int Ed Engl 1981;20:744-61  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Wehmeier UF, Piepersberg W. Biotechnology and molecular biology of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose. Microbiol Biotechnol 2004;63:613-25.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Luo H, Imoto T, Hiji Y. Inhibitory effect of voglibose and gymnemic acid on maltose absorption in vivo. World J Gastroentero 2001;7:270-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Inouye S, Tsuruoka T, Ito T, Niida T. Structure and synthesis of nojirimycin. Tetrahedron 1968;23:2125-44.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Reese ET, Parrish FW. Nojirimycin and d-glucose-1, 5-lactone as inhibitors of carbohydrases. Carbohydr Res 1971;18:381-8  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Asano N, Tomioka E, Kizu H, Matsui K. Sugars with nitrogen in the ring isolated from the leaves of Morus bombycis. Carbohydr Res 1994;253:235-45.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Maeda K, Kakabayashi S, Matsubara H. Complete amino acid sequence of an alpha-amylase inhibitor in wheat kernel (0.19-inhibitor). Biochim Biophys Acta 1985;828:213-2  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Tadera K, Minami Y, Takamastu K, Matsuoka T. Inhibition of á-Glucosidase and á-Amylase by Flavonoids. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2006;52:149-53.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Anurakkun NJ, Bhandari MR, Kawabata J. á-Glucosidase inhibitors from Devil tree (Alstonia scholaris ). Food Chem 2007;103:1319-23.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Gao H, Huang YN, Gao B, Li P, Inagaki C, Kawabata J. Inhibitory effect on á-glucosidase by Adhatoda vasica Nees. Food Chem 2008;108:965-72.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Tabopda TK, Ngoupayo J, Liu J, Mitaine-Offer AC, Tanoli SA, Khan SN, et al. Bioactive aristolactams from Piper umbellatum. Phytochem 2008;69:1726-31.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Gao H, Huang YN, Gao B, Xu PY, Inagaki C, Kawabata J. á-Glucosidase inhibitory effect by the flower buds of Tussilago farfara L. Food Chem 2008;106:1195-201.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Gao H, Huang YN, Xu PY, Kawabata J. Inhibitory effect on á-glucosidase by the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. Food Chem 2007;105:628-34.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Bhandari MR, Anurakkun NJ, Hong G, Kawabata J. á-Glucosidase and á-amylase inhibitory activities of Nepalese medicinal herb Pakhanbhed (Bergenia ciliata , Haw.). Food Chem 2008;106:247-52.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Kurihara H, Mitani T, Kawabata J, Takahashi K. Inhibitory potencies of bromophenols from Rhodomelaceae algae against á-glucosidase activity. Fish Sci 1999;65:300-3.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Haslam E. Polyphenol-protein interactions. J Chem Ecol 1974;139:285-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Cogoli A, Semenza G. 18 A probable oxocarbonium ion in the reaction mechanism of small intestinal sucrase and isomaltase. J Biol Chem 1975;250:7802-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Stern JL, Hagerman AE, Steinberg PD, Mason PK. Phlorotannins-protein interactions. J Chem Ecol 1996;22:1877-99.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Lam SH, Chen JM, Kang CJ, Chen CH, Lee SS. á-Glucosidase inhibitors from the seeds of Syagrus romanzoffiana. Phytochem 2008;69:1173-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Du ZY, Liu RR, Shao WY, Mao XP, Ma L, Gu LQ, et al0. á-Glucosidase inhibition of natural curcuminoids and curcumin analogs. Eur E Med Chem 2006;14:213-8.   Back to cited text no. 25
26.Mbaze LM, Poumale HM, Wansi JD, Lado JA, Khan SN, Iqbal MC, et al. á-Glucosidase inhibitory pentacyclic triterpenes from the stem bark of Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae). Phytochem 2007;68:591-5.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Luo JG, Ma L, Kong LY. New triterpenoid saponins with strong á- glucosidase inhibitory activity from the roots of Gypsophila oldhamiana. Bioorg Med Chem 2008;16:2912-20.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Adisakwattana S, Charoenlertkul P, Yibchok-Anun S. á-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of cyanidin-3-galactoside and synergistic effect with acarbose. J Enzym Inhib Med Chem 2009;24:65-9.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Cetto AA, Jim´enez JB, V´azquez RC. Alfa-glucosidase-inhibiting activity of some Mexican plants used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116:27-32.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Abesundara KJ, Matsui T, Matsumoto K. Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of some Sri Lanka plant extracts, one of which, Cassia auriculata, exerts a strong antihyperglycemic effect in rats comparable to the therapeutic drug acarbose. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:2541-5.  Back to cited text no. 30
31.Cetto AA, Jim´enez JB, V´azquez RC. Alfa-glucosidase-inhibiting activity of some Mexican plants used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116:27-32.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Anurakkun NJ, Bhandari MR, Hong G, Kawabata J. á-Glucosidase inhibitor from Chinese aloes. Fitoterapia 2008;79:456-7.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Mai TT, Chuyen NV. Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of an Aqueous Extract from Flower Buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2007;71:69-76.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.Shibano M, Kakutani K, Taniguchi M, Yasuda M, Baba K. Antioxidant constituents in the dayflower (Commelina communis L.) and their a-glucosidase-inhibitory activity. J Nat Med 2008;62:349-53.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.Li H, Song F, Xing J, Tsao R, Liu Z, Liu S. Screening and Structural Characterization of á-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Hawthorn Leaf Flavonoids Extract by Ultrafiltration LC-DAD-MSn and SORI-CID FTICR MS. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2009;20:1496-503.  Back to cited text no. 35
36.Anis E, Anis I, Ahmed S, Mustafa G, Malik A, Afja N, et al. á-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from Cuscuta reflexa. Chem Pharm Bull 2002;50:112-4.   Back to cited text no. 36
37. Rao RR, Tiwari AK, Reddy PP, Babu SK, Ali AZ, Madhusudana K, et al. New furanoflavanoids, intestinal a-glucosidase inhibitory and free-radical (DPPH) scavenging, activity from antihyperglycemic root extract of Derris indica (Lam.). Bioorg Med Chem 2009;17:5170-5.   Back to cited text no. 37
38.Rao RV, Dasari KR, Rao MJ. Isolation, characterization and chemobiological quantification of á-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory and free radical scavenging constituents from Derris scandens Benth. J Chromatogr B 2007;855:166-72.  Back to cited text no. 38
39.Tabopda TK, Ngoupayo J, Awoussong PK, Mitaine-Offer AC, Ali MS, Ngadjui BT, et al. Triprenylated Flavonoids from Dorstenia psilurus and Their á-Glucosidase Inhibition Properties. J Nat Prod 2008;71:2068-72.  Back to cited text no. 39
40.Iqbal K, Malik A, Mukhtar N, Anis I, Khan SN, Choudhary MI. á-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from Duranta repens. Chem Pharm Bull 2004;52:785-9.  Back to cited text no. 40
41.Iwai K. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of polyphenols in brown alga Ecklonia stolonifera in Genetically Diabetic KK-Ay Mice. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2008;63:163-9.  Back to cited text no. 41
42.Deutschländera MS, van de Venter M, Roux S, Louw J, Lall N. Hypoglycaemic activity of four plant extracts traditionally used in South Africa for diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;124:619-24.  Back to cited text no. 42
43.Miyazaki H, Matsuura H, Yanagiya C, Mizutani J, Tsuji M, Ishihara C. Inhibitory effects of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) extracts on intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2003;49:3 46-9.  Back to cited text no. 43
44.Matsui T, Ebuchi S, Kobayashi M, Fukui K, Sugita K, Terahara N, et al. Anti-hyperglycemic Effect of Diacylated Anthocyanin Derived from Ipomoea batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki Can Be Achieved through the á-Glucosidase Inhibitory Action. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:7244-8.  Back to cited text no. 44
45.Shibano M, Tsukamoto D, Masuda A, Tanaka Y, Kusano G. Two New Pyrrolidine Alkaloids, Radicamines A and B, as Inhibitors of á-Glucosidase from Lobelia chinensis LOUR. Chem Pharm Bull 2001;49:1362-5.   Back to cited text no. 45
46.Lee SS, Lin HC, Chen CK. Acylated flavonol monorhamnosides, á-glucosidase inhibitors, from Machilus philippinensis . Phytochem 2008;69:2347-53.  Back to cited text no. 46
47.Cetto AA, Jim´enez JB, V´azquez RC. Alfa-glucosidase-inhibiting activity of some Mexican plants used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116:27-32.  Back to cited text no. 47
48.Kawaguchi M, Tanabe H, Nagamine K. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Flavonoids Possessing a 4,2"-Glycosidic Linkage from Green Mature Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) Fruit. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2007;71:1130-5.  Back to cited text no. 48
49.Prashanth D, Amit A, Samiulla DS, Asha MK, Padmaja R. Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica bark. Fitoterapia 2001;72:686-8.  Back to cited text no. 49
50.Hansawasdi C, Kawabata J. á-Glucosidase inhibitory effect of mulberry (Morus alba ) leaves on Caco-2. Fitoterapia 2006;77:568-73.  Back to cited text no. 50
51.Kawabata J, Mizuhata K, Sato E, Nishioka T, Aoyama Y, Kasai T. 6-Hydroxyflavanoids as á-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Marjoram (Origanum majorana) Leaves. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2003;67:445-7.  Back to cited text no. 51
52.Takada K, Uehara T, Nakao Y, Matsunaga S, van Soest RW, Fusetani N. Schulzeines A-C, New á-Glucosidase Inhibitors from the Marine Sponge Penares schulzei . J Am Chem Soc 2004;126:187-93.   Back to cited text no. 52
53.Matsui T, Ueda T, Oki T, Sugita K, Terahara N, Matsumoto K. á-Glucosidase Inhibitory Action of Natural Acylated Anthocyanins. 2. á-Glucosidase Inhibition by Isolated Acylated Anthocyanins. J Agric Food Chem 2001;490:1952-6.   Back to cited text no. 53
54.Ali H, Houghton PJ, Soumyanath A. á-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;107:449-55.  Back to cited text no. 54
55.Schafer A, Hogger P. Oligomeric procyanidins of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol1) effectively inhibit a-glucosidase. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;77:41-6.  Back to cited text no. 55
56.Kim YM, Jeong YK, Wang MH, Lee WY, Rhee HI. Inhibitory effect of pine extract on á-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia. Nutrition 2005;21:756-61.  Back to cited text no. 56
57.Pullela SV, Tiwari AK, Vanka UM, Vummenthula A, Tatipaka HB, Dasari KR, et al. HPLC assisted chemobiological standardization of á-glucosidase-I enzyme inhibitory constituents from Piper longum. Linn. An Indian medicinal plant. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;108:445-9.  Back to cited text no. 57
58.Wang B, Liu HC, Hong JR, Li HG, Huang CY. Effect of Psidium guajava leaf extract on alpha-glucosidase activity in small intestine of diabetic mouse. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2007;38:298-301.  Back to cited text no. 58
59.Yoshikawa M, Nishida N, Shimoda H, Takada M, Kawahara Y, Matsuda H. Polyphenol Constituents from Salacia Species: Quantitative Analysis of Mangiferin with á-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activities. Yakugaku Zasshi 2001;121:371-8.  Back to cited text no. 59
60.Nishioka T, Kawabata J, Aoyama Y. Baicalein, an á-Glucosidase Inhibitor from Scutellaria baicalensis. J Nat Prod 1998;61:1413-5.  Back to cited text no. 60
61.Kim JH, Ryu YB, Kang NS, Lee BW, Heo JS, Jeong IY, et al. Glycosidase Inhibitory Flavonoids from Sophora flavescens. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:302-5.  Back to cited text no. 61
62.Yoshida K, Hishida A, Iida O, Hosokawa K, Kawabata J. Flavonol Caffeoylglycosides as á-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Spiraea cantoniensis Flower. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:4367-71.  Back to cited text no. 62
63.Shinde J, Taldone T, Barletta M, Kunaparaju N, Hu B, Kumar S, et al. á-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels seed kernel in vitro and in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Carbohydr Res 2008;343:1278-81.  Back to cited text no. 63
64.Jung M, Park M, Lee HC, Kang YH, Kang ES, Kim SK. Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants. Curr Med Chem 2006;13:1203-18.  Back to cited text no. 64
65.Wansi JD, Lallemand MC, Chiozem DD, Toze FA, Mbaze LM, Naharkhan S. á-Glucosidase inhibitory constituents from stem bark of Terminalia superba (Combretaceae). Phytochem 2007;68:2096-100.  Back to cited text no. 65
66.Ortiz-Andrade RR, García-Jiménez S, Castillo-España P, Ramírez-Avila G, Villalobos-Molina R, Estrada-Soto S. á-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extract from Tournefortia hartwegiana : an anti-hyperglycmic agent. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109:48-53.  Back to cited text no. 66
67.Iwai K, Kim MY, Onodera A, Matsue H. á-Glucosidase Inhibitory and Antihyperglycemic Effects of Polyphenols in the Fruit of Viburnum dilatatum Thunb. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:4588-  Back to cited text no. 67
68.Gershell L. Type 2 diabetes market. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2005;4:367-68.  Back to cited text no. 68


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 a-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of marine sponges collected in Mauritius waters
Avin Ramanjooloo,Thierry Cresteil,Cindy Lebrasse,Girish Beedessee,Preeti Oogarah,Rob W.M. van Soest,Daniel E.P. Marie
Natural Product Research. 2014; : 1
2 Effect of Ca2+ on the activity and structure of a-glucosidase: Inhibition kinetics and molecular dynamics simulations
Xin Zhang,Long Shi,Xuan Li,Qing Sheng,Ling Yao,Dong Shen,Zhi-Rong Lü,Hai-Meng Zhou,Yong-Doo Park,Jinhyuk Lee,Qian Zhang
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2014;
3 Antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activities of the constituents ofPlectranthus madagascariensis(Pers.) Benth
Renata Kubínová,Radka Porízková,Alice Navrátilová,Oldrich Farsa,Zuzana Hanáková,Adriana Bacinská,Alois Cížek,Marie Valentová
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2014; : 1
4 Identification of a-glucosidase inhibitors from the leaves ofPluchea indica(L.) Less., a traditional Indonesian herb: promotion of natural product use
Ines Septi Arsiningtyas,Maria D.P.T. Gunawan-Puteri,Eisuke Kato,Jun Kawabata
Natural Product Research. 2014; : 1
5 Triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Rosa rugosa Thunb. as rat intestinal sucrase inhibitors
Nguyen Phuong Thao,Bui Thi Thuy Luyen,Sung Hoo Jo,Tran Manh Hung,Nguyen Xuan Cuong,Nguyen Hoai Nam,Young In Kwon,Chau Van Minh,Young Ho Kim
Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2014;
6 a-Glucosidase inhibition by luteolin: Kinetics, interaction and molecular docking
Jiakai Yan,Guowen Zhang,Junhui Pan,Yajie Wang
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2014; 64: 213
7 Potent a-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors from Artemisia capillaris
Md. Nurul Islam,Hyun Ah Jung,Hee Sook Sohn,Hye Mi Kim,Jae Sue Choi
Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2013; 36(5): 542
8 Antibacterial, anti-glucosidase, and antioxidant activities of selected highland ferns of Malaysia
Tsun-Thai Chai,Sanmugapriya Elamparuthi,Ann-Li Yong,Yixian Quah,Hean-Chooi Ong,Fai-Chu Wong
Botanical Studies. 2013; 54(1): 55
9 Enzymes Inhibition and Antidiabetic Effect of Isolated Constituents from Dillenia indica
Sunil Kumar,Vipin Kumar,Om Prakash
BioMed Research International. 2013; 2013: 1
10 Studies on a-glucosidase inhibition and anti-glycation potential of Iris loczyi and Iris unguicularis
Mohmmed Mosihuzzman,Suad Naheed,Sumaira Hareem,Sumaira Talib,Ghulam Abbas,Shamsun Nahar Khan,Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary,Bilge Sener,Rasool Baksh Tareen,Mudassir Israr
Life Sciences. 2013; 92(3): 187
11 Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig
Félicien Mushagalusa Kasali,Justin Ntokamunda Kadima,Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana,Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua,Damien Sha-Tshibey Tshibangu
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2013; 3(11): 841
12 Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Hypoglycemic Effects of the Leaf Extract from Passiflora nitida Kunth
Carlos Victor Montefusco-Pereira,Maria José Carvalho,Ana Paula Araújo Boleti,Lorisa Simas Teixeira,Humberto Reis Matos,Emerson Silva Lima
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2013; 170(6): 1367
13 Isolation and identification of a-glucosidase inhibitors from the stem bark of the nutgall tree (Rhus javanica Linné)
Jeong-Yong Cho,Kang-Deok Lee,Sun-Young Park,Won Chul Jeong,Jae-Hak Moon,Kyung-Sik Ham
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry. 2013; 56(5): 547
14 Mexican Antidiabetic Herbs: Valuable Sources of Inhibitors of a-Glucosidases
Rachel Mata,Sol Cristians,Sonia Escandón-Rivera,Krutzkaya Juárez-Reyes,Isabel Rivero-Cruz
Journal of Natural Products. 2013; 76(3): 468
15 Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects of the leaf extract from passiflora nitida kunth
Montefusco-Pereira, C.V. and De Carvalho, M.J. and De AraĂşjo Boleti, A.P. and Teixeira, L.S. and Matos, H.R. and Lima, E.S.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2013; 170(6): 1367-1378
16 Potent α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors from Artemisia capillaris
Nurul Islam, M. and Jung, H.A. and Sohn, H.S. and Kim, H.M. and Choi, J.S.
Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2013; 36(5): 542-552
17 Mexican antidiabetic herbs: Valuable sources of inhibitors of α-glucosidases
Mata, R. and Cristians, S. and Escandón-Rivera, S. and Juárez-Reyes, K. and Rivero-Cruz, I.
Journal of Natural Products. 2013; 76(3): 468-483
18 Extracts, anthocyanins and procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as radical scavengers and enzyme inhibitors
Bräunlich, M. and Slimestad, R. and Wangensteen, H. and Brede, C. and Malterud, K.E. and Barsett, H.
Nutrients. 2013; 5(3): 663-678
19 Studies on α-glucosidase inhibition and anti-glycation potential of Iris loczyi and Iris unguicularis
Mosihuzzman, M. and Naheed, S. and Hareem, S. and Talib, S. and Abbas, G. and Khan, S.N. and Choudhary, M.I. and Sener, B. and Tareen, R.B. and Israr, M.
Life Sciences. 2013; 92(3): 187-192
20 Inhibitory effect of Zn2+ on α-glucosidase: Inhibition kinetics and molecular dynamics simulation
Zeng, Y.-F. and Lee, J. and Si, Y.-X. and Yan, L. and Kim, T.-R. and Qian, G.-Y. and LĂĽ, Z.-R. and Ye, Z.M. and Yin, S.-J.
Process Biochemistry. 2012; 47(12): 2510-2517
21 Berry components inhibit α-glucosidase in vitro: Synergies between acarbose and polyphenols from black currant and rowanberry
Boath, A.S. and Stewart, D. and McDougall, G.J.
Food Chemistry. 2012; 135(3): 929-936
22 Biochemical characterization of α- and β-glucosidases in alimentary canal, salivary glands and haemolymph of the rice green caterpillar, Naranga aenescens M. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Asadi, A. and Ghadamyari, M. and Sajedi, R.H. and Sendi, J.J. and Tabari, M.
Biologia (Poland). 2012; 67(6): 1186-1194
23 Alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect and enzyme kinetics of coastal medicinal plants
Gurudeeban, S. and Satyavani, K. and Ramanathan, T.
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology. 2012; 7(3): 186-191
24 Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) volatile oil inhibits key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes
Lekshmi, P.C. and Arimboor, R. and Indulekha, P.S. and Nirmala Menon, A.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2012; 63(7): 832-834
25 Effect of bridelia ferruginea (euphorbiaceae) leaf extract on sucrose-induced glucose intolerance in rats
Njamen, D. and Nkeh-Chungag, B.N. and Tsala, E. and Fomum, Z.T. and Mbanya, J.C. and Ngufor, G.F.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2012; 11(5): 759-765
26 Antidiabetic activity test by inhibition of α-glucosidaseand phytochemical screening from the most active fraction of buni (Antidesma bunius L.) stem barks and leaves
Elya, B. and Malik, A. and Mahanani, P.I.S. and Loranza, B.
International Journal of PharmTech Research. 2012; 4(4): 1667-1671
27 In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe 2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas
Adefegha, S.A. and Oboh, G.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(10): 774-781
28 Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities by ethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) leaf
Oboh, G. and Akinyemi, A.J. and Ademiluyi, A.O.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(9): 733-738
29 Effect of Dongchunghacho (Cordyceps militaris) on hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic db/db mice
Choi, H.-N. and Kang, M.-J. and Jeong, S.-M. and Seo, M.J. and Kang, B.W. and Jeong, Y.K. and Kim, J.-I.
Food Science and Biotechnology. 2012; 21(4): 1157-1162
30 Short and long-term effects of Baccharis articulata on glucose homeostasis
Kappel, V.D. and Pereira, D.F. and Cazarolli, L.H. and Guesser, S.M. and Da Silva, C.H.B. and Schenkel, E.P. and Reginatto, F.H. and Silva, F.R.M.B.
Molecules. 2012; 17(6): 6754-6768
31 Bioassay-guided antidiabetic study of Phaleria macrocarpa fruit extract
Ali, R.B. and Atangwho, I.J. and Kaur, N. and Abraika, O.S. and Ahmad, M. and Mahmud, R. and Asmawi, M.Z.
Molecules. 2012; 17(5): 4986-5002
32 Berry components inhibit a-glucosidase in vitro: Synergies between acarbose and polyphenols from black currant and rowanberry
Ashley S. Boath,Derek Stewart,Gordon J. McDougall
Food Chemistry. 2012; 135(3): 929
33 Inhibition of a-amylase and a-glucosidase activities by ethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) leaf
G Oboh,AJ Akinyemi,AO Ademiluyi
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(9): 733
34 In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas
Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha,Ganiyu Oboh
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(10): 774
35 Inhibitory effect of Zn2+ on a-glucosidase: Inhibition kinetics and molecular dynamics simulation
Yan-Fei Zeng,Jinhyuk Lee,Yue-Xiu Si,Li Yan,Tae-Rae Kim,Guo-Ying Qian,Zhi-Rong Lü,Zhuo Ming Ye,Shang-Jun Yin
Process Biochemistry. 2012; 47(12): 2510
36 Effect of Dongchunghacho (Cordyceps militaris) on hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic db/db mice
Ha-Neul Choi,Min-Jung Kang,Soo-Mi Jeong,Min Jeong Seo,Byoung Won Kang,Yong Kee Jeong,Jung-In Kim
Food Science and Biotechnology. 2012; 21(4): 1157
37 Turmeric (Curcuma longaL.) volatile oil inhibits key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes
P. C. Lekshmi,Ranjith Arimboor,P. S. Indulekha,A. Nirmala Menon
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2012; 63(7): 832


    Similar in PUBMED
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded95    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 37    

Recommend this journal