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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 118-126 Table of Contents     

Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health


Department of Botany, Birla College, Kalyan - 421 304, Maharastra, India

Date of Submission04-Mar-2010
Date of Decision08-Mar-2010
Date of Web Publication7-Oct-2010

Correspondence Address:
V Lobo
Department of Botany, Birla College, Kalyan - 421 301
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.70902

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  Abstract 

In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functional foods in the management of human diseases.

Keywords: Ageing, antioxidant, free radicals, oxidative stress


How to cite this article:
Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Phcog Rev 2010;4:118-26

How to cite this URL:
Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Phcog Rev [serial online] 2010 [cited 2017 Jan 24];4:118-26. Available from: http://www.phcogrev.com/text.asp?2010/4/8/118/70902


  Introduction Top


The recent growth in the knowledge of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biology is producing a medical revolution that promises a new age of health and disease management. [1] It is ironic that oxygen, an element indispensable for life, [2] under certain situations has deleterious effects on the human body. [3] Most of the potentially harmful effects of oxygen are due to the formation and activity of a number of chemical compounds, known as ROS, which have a tendency to donate oxygen to other substances. Free radicals and antioxidants have become commonly used terms in modern discussions of disease mechanisms. [4]


  Free Radicals Top


A free radical can be defined as any molecular species capable of independent existence that contains an unpaired electron in an atomic orbital. The presence of an unpaired electron results in certain common properties that are shared by most radicals. Many radicals are unstable and highly reactive. They can either donate an electron to or accept an electron from other molecules, therefore behaving as oxidants or reductants. [5] The most important oxygen-containing free radicals in many disease states are hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen singlet, hypochlorite, nitric oxide radical, and peroxynitrite radical. These are highly reactive species, capable in the nucleus, and in the membranes of cells of damaging biologically relevant molecules such as DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. [6] Free radicals attack important macromolecules leading to cell damage and homeostatic disruption. Targets of free radicals include all kinds of molecules in the body. Among them, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins are the major targets.

Production of free radicals in the human body

Free radicals and other ROS are derived either from normal essential metabolic processes in the human body or from external sources such as exposure to X-rays, ozone, cigarette smoking, air pollutants, and industrial chemicals. [3] Free radical formation occurs continuously in the cells as a consequence of both enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. Enzymatic reactions, which serve as source of free radicals, include those involved in the respiratory chain, in phagocytosis, in prostaglandin synthesis, and in the cytochrome P-450 system. [7] Free radicals can also be formed in nonenzymatic reactions of oxygen with organic compounds as well as those initiated by ionizing reactions.

Some internally generated sources of free radicals are [8]

  • Mitochondria
  • Xanthine oxidase
  • Peroxisomes
  • Inflammation
  • Phagocytosis
  • Arachidonate pathways
  • Exercise
  • Ischemia/reperfusion injury
  • Some externally generated sources of free radicals are:
  • Cigarette smoke
  • Environmental pollutants
  • Radiation
  • Certain drugs, pesticides
  • Industrial solvents
  • Ozone


Free radicals in biology

Free radical reactions are expected to produce progressive adverse changes that accumulate with age throughout the body [Table 1]. Such "normal" changes with age are relatively common to all. However, superimposed on this common pattern are patterns influenced by genetics and environmental differences that modulate free radical damage. These are manifested as diseases at certain ages determined by genetic and environmental factors. Cancer and atherosclerosis, two major causes of death, are salient "free radical" diseases. Cancer initiation and promotion is associated with chromosomal defects and oncogene activation. It is possible that endogenous free radical reactions, like those initiated by ionizing radiation, may result in tumor formation. The highly significant correlation between consumption of fats and oils and death rates from leukemia and malignant neoplasia of the breast, ovaries, and rectum among persons over 55 years may be a reflection of greater lipid peroxidation. [9] Studies on atherosclerosis reveal the probability that the disease may be due to free radical reactions involving diet-derived lipids in the arterial wall and serum to yield peroxides and other substances. These compounds induce endothelial cell injury and produce changes in the arterial walls. [10]
Table 1 :Free radicals[11-13]

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  Concept of Oxidative Stress Top


The term is used to describe the condition of oxidative damage resulting when the critical balance between free radical generation and antioxidant defenses is unfavorable. [14] Oxidative stress, arising as a result of an imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defenses, is associated with damage to a wide range of molecular species including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. [15] Short-term oxidative stress may occur in tissues injured by trauma, infection, heat injury, hypertoxia, toxins, and excessive exercise. These injured tissues produce increased radical generating enzymes (e.g., xanthine oxidase, lipogenase, cyclooxygenase) activation of phagocytes, release of free iron, copper ions, or a disruption of the electron transport chains of oxidative phosphorylation, producing excess ROS. The initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer, as well as the side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy, have been linked to the imbalance between ROS and the antioxidant defense system. ROS have been implicated in the induction and complications of diabetes mellitus, age-related eye disease, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. [16]

Oxidative stress and human diseases

A role of oxidative stress has been postulated in many conditions, including anthersclerosis, inflammatory condition, certain cancers, and the process of aging. Oxidative stress is now thought to make a significant contribution to all inflammatory diseases (arthritis, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, lupus erythematous, adult respiratory diseases syndrome), ischemic diseases (heart diseases, stroke, intestinal ischema), hemochromatosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, emphysema, organ transplantation, gastric ulcers, hypertension and preeclampsia, neurological disorder (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, muscular dystrophy), alcoholism, smoking-related diseases, and many others. [17] An excess of oxidative stress can lead to the oxidation of lipids and proteins, which is associated with changes in their structure and functions.

Cardiovascular diseases

Heart diseases continue to be the biggest killer, responsible for about half of all the deaths. The oxidative events may affect cardiovascular diseases therefore; it has potential to provide enormous benefits to the health and lifespan. Poly unsaturated fatty acids occur as a major part of the low density lipoproteins (LDL) in blood and oxidation of these lipid components in LDL play a vital role in atherosclerosis. [18] The three most important cell types in the vessel wall are endothelial cells; smooth muscle cell and macrophage can release free radical, which affect lipid peroxidation. [19] With continued high level of oxidized lipids, blood vessel damage to the reaction process continues and can lead to generation of foam cells and plaque the symptoms of atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL is antherogenic and is thought to be important in the formation of anthersclerosis plaques. Furthermore, oxidized LDL is cytotoxic and can directly damage endothelial cells. Antioxidants like B-carotene or vitamin E play a vital role in the prevention of various cardiovascular diseases.

Carcinogenesis

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, such as super oxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and nitric oxide and their biological metabolites also play an important role in carcinogenesis. ROS induce DNA damage, as the reaction of free radicals with DNA includes strand break base modification and DNA protein cross-links. Numerous investigators have proposed participation of free radicals in carcinogenesis, mutation, and transformation; it is clear that their presence in biosystem could lead to mutation, transformation, and ultimately cancer. Induction of mutagenesis, the best known of the biological effect of radiation, occurs mainly through damage of DNA by the HO. Radical and other species are produced by the radiolysis, and also by direct radiation effect on DNA, the reaction effects on DNA. The reaction of HO. Radicals is mainly addition to double bond of pyrimidine bases and abstraction of hydrogen from the sugar moiety resulting in chain reaction of DNA. These effects cause cell mutagenesis and carcinogenesis lipid peroxides are also responsible for the activation of carcinogens.

Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress induced carcinogenesis by a direct scavenging of ROS and/or by inhibiting cell proliferation secondary to the protein phosphorylation. B-carotene may be protective against cancer through its antioxidant function, because oxidative products can cause genetic damage. Thus, the photo protective properties of B-carotene may protect against ultraviolet light induced carcinogenesis. Immunoenhancement of B-carotene may contribute to cancer protection. B-carotene may also have anticarcinogenic effect by altering the liver metabolism effects of carcinogens. [20] Vitamin C may be helpful in preventing cancer. [21] The possible mechanisms by which vitamin C may affect carcinogenesis include antioxidant effects, blocking of formation of nitrosanimes, enhancement of the immune response, and acceleration of detoxification of liver enzymes. Vitamin E, an important antioxidant, plays a role in immunocompetence by increasing humoral antibody protection, resistance to bacterial infections, cell-mediated immunity, the T-lymphocytes tumor necrosis factor production, inhibition of mutagen formation, repair of membranes in DNA, and blocking micro cell line formation. [22] Hence vitamin E may be useful in cancer prevention and inhibit carcinogenesis by the stimulation of the immune system. The administration of a mixture of the above three antioxidant reveled the highest reduction in risk of developing cardiac cancer.

Free radical and aging

The human body is in constant battle to keep from aging. Research suggests that free radical damage to cells leads to the pathological changes associated with aging. [23] An increasing number of diseases or disorders, as well as aging process itself, demonstrate link either directly or indirectly to these reactive and potentially destructive molecules. [24] The major mechanism of aging attributes to DNA or the accumulation of cellular and functional damage. [25] Reduction of free radicals or decreasing their rate of production may delay aging. Some of the nutritional antioxidants will retard the aging process and prevent disease. Based on these studies, it appears that increased oxidative stress commonly occurs during the aging process, and antioxidant status may significantly influence the effects of oxidative damage associated with advancing age. Research suggests that free radicals have a significant influence on aging, that free radical damage can be controlled with adequate antioxidant defense, and that optimal intake of antioxidant nutrient may contribute to enhanced quality of life. Recent research indicates that antioxidant may even positively influence life span.

Oxidative damage to protein and DNA

Oxidative damage to protein

0Proteins can be oxidatively modified in three ways: oxidative modification of specific amino acid, free radical mediated peptide cleavage, and formation of protein cross-linkage due to reaction with lipid peroxidation products. Protein containing amino acids such as methionine, cystein, arginine, and histidine seem to be the most vulnerable to oxidation. [26] Free radical mediated protein modification increases susceptibility to enzyme proteolysis. Oxidative damage to protein products may affect the activity of enzymes, receptors, and membrane transport. Oxidatively damaged protein products may contain very reactive groups that may contribute to damage to membrane and many cellular functions. Peroxyl radical is usually considered to be free radical species for the oxidation of proteins. ROS can damage proteins and produce carbonyls and other amino acids modification including formation of methionine sulfoxide and protein carbonyls and other amino acids modification including formation of methionine sulfoxide and protein peroxide. Protein oxidation affects the alteration of signal transduction mechanism, enzyme activity, heat stability, and proteolysis susceptibility, which leads to aging.

Lipid peroxidation

Oxidative stress and oxidative modification of biomolecules are involved in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes such as aging, artheroscleosis, inflammation and carcinogenesis, and drug toxicity. Lipid peroxidation is a free radical process involving a source of secondary free radical, which further can act as second messenger or can directly react with other biomolecule, enhancing biochemical lesions. Lipid peroxidation occurs on polysaturated fatty acid located on the cell membranes and it further proceeds with radical chain reaction. Hydroxyl radical is thought to initiate ROS and remove hydrogen atom, thus producing lipid radical and further converted into diene conjugate. Further, by addition of oxygen it forms peroxyl radical; this highly reactive radical attacks another fatty acid forming lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) and a new radical. Thus lipid peroxidation is propagated. Due to lipid peroxidation, a number of compounds are formed, for example, alkanes, malanoaldehyde, and isoprotanes. These compounds are used as markers in lipid peroxidation assay and have been verified in many diseases such as neurogenerative diseases, ischemic reperfusion injury, and diabetes. [27]

Oxidative damage to DNA

Many experiments clearly provide evidences that DNA and RNA are susceptible to oxidative damage. It has been reported that especially in aging and cancer, DNA is considered as a major target. [28] Oxidative nucleotide as glycol, dTG, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine is found to be increased during oxidative damage to DNA under UV radiation or free radical damage. It has been reported that mitochondrial DNA are more susceptible to oxidative damage that have role in many diseases including cancer. It has been suggested that 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine can be used as biological marker for oxidative stress. [29]


  Antioxidants Top


An antioxidant is a molecule stable enough to donate an electron to a rampaging free radical and neutralize it, thus reducing its capacity to damage. These antioxidants delay or inhibit cellular damage mainly through their free radical scavenging property. [30] These low-molecular-weight antioxidants can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. Some of such antioxidants, including glutathione, ubiquinol, and uric acid, are produced during normal metabolism in the body. [31] Other lighter antioxidants are found in the diet. Although there are several enzymes system within the body that scavenge free radicals, the principle micronutrient (vitamins) antioxidants are vitamin E (α-tocopherol), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and B-carotene.[32] The body cannot manufacture these micronutrients, so they must be supplied in the diet.

History

The term antioxidant originally was used to refer specifically to a chemical that prevented the consumption of oxygen. In the late 19th and early 20th century, extensive study was devoted to the uses of antioxidants in important industrial processes, such as the prevention of metal corrosion, the vulcanization of rubber, and the polymerization of fuels in the fouling of internal combustion engines. [33]

Early research on the role of antioxidants in biology focused on their use in preventing the oxidation of unsaturated fats, which is the cause of rancidity. [34] Antioxidant activity could be measured simply by placing the fat in a closed container with oxygen and measuring the rate of oxygen consumption. However, it was the identification of vitamins A, C, and E as antioxidants that revolutionized the field and led to the realization of the importance of antioxidants in the biochemistry of living organisms. [35],[36] The possible mechanisms of action of antioxidants were first explored when it was recognized that a substance with antioxidative activity is likely to be one that is itself readily oxidized. [37] Research into how vitamin E prevents the process of lipid peroxidation led to the identification of antioxidants as reducing agents that prevent oxidative reactions, often by scavenging ROS before they can damage cells. [38]

Antioxidant defense system

Antioxidants act as radical scavenger, hydrogen donor, electron donor, peroxide decomposer, singlet oxygen quencher, enzyme inhibitor, synergist, and metal-chelating agents. Both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants exist in the intracellular and extracellular environment to detoxify ROS. [39]

Mechanism of action of antioxidants

Two principle mechanisms of action have been proposed for antioxidants. [40] The first is a chain- breaking mechanism by which the primary antioxidant donates an electron to the free radical present in the systems. The second mechanism involves removal of ROS/reactive nitrogen species initiators (secondary antioxidants) by quenching chain-initiating catalyst. Antioxidants may exert their effect on biological systems by different mechanisms including electron donation, metal ion chelation, co-antioxidants, or by gene expression regulation. [41]

Levels of antioxidant action

The antioxidants acting in the defense systems act at different levels such as preventive, radical scavenging, repair and de novo, and the fourth line of defense, i.e., the adaptation.

The first line of defense is the preventive antioxidants, which suppress the formation of free radicals. Although the precise mechanism and site of radical formation in vivo are not well elucidated yet, the metal-induced decompositions of hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide must be one of the important sources. To suppress such reactions, some antioxidants reduce hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide beforehand to alcohols and water, respectively, without generation of free radicals and some proteins sequester metal ions.

Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX), and peroxidase are known to decompose lipid hydroperoxides to corresponding alcohols. PHGPX is unique in that it can reduce hydroperoxides of phospholipids integrated into biomembranes. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase reduce hydrogen peroxide to water.

The second line of defense is the antioxidants that scavenge the active radicals to suppress chain initiation and/or break the chain propagation reactions. Various endogenous radical-scavenging antioxidants are known: some are hydrophilic and others are lipophilic. Vitamin C, uric acid, bilirubin, albumin, and thiols are hydrophilic, radical-scavenging antioxidants, while vitamin E and ubiquinol are lipophilic radical-scavenging antioxidants. Vitamin E is accepted as the most potent radical-scavenging lipophilic antioxidant.

The third line of defense is the repair and de novo antioxidants. The proteolytic enzymes, proteinases, proteases, and peptidases, present in the cytosol and in the mitochondria of mammalian cells, recognize, degrade, and remove oxidatively modified proteins and prevent the accumulation of oxidized proteins.

The DNA repair systems also play an important role in the total defense system against oxidative damage. Various kinds of enzymes such as glycosylases and nucleases, which repair the damaged DNA, are known.

There is another important function called adaptation where the signal for the production and reactions of free radicals induces formation and transport of the appropriate antioxidant to the right site. [42]


  Enzymatic Top


Types of antioxidants

Cells are protected against oxidative stress by an interacting network of antioxidant enzymes. [43] Here, the superoxide released by processes such as oxidative phosphorylation is first converted to hydrogen peroxide and then further reduced to give water. This detoxification pathway is the result of multiple enzymes, with superoxide dismutases catalyzing the first step and then catalases and various peroxidases removing hydrogen peroxide. [44]

Superoxide dismutase

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a class of closely related enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of the superoxide anion into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. [45],[46] SOD enzymes are present in almost all aerobic cells and in extracellular fluids. [47] There are three major families of superoxide dismutase, depending on the metal cofactor: Cu/Zn (which binds both copper and zinc), Fe and Mn types (which bind either iron or manganese), and finally the Ni type which binds nickel. [48] In higher plants, SOD isozymes have been localized in different cell compartments. Mn-SOD is present in mitochondria and peroxisomes. Fe-SOD has been found mainly in chloroplasts but has also been detected in peroxisomes, and CuZn-SOD has been localized in cytosol, chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and apoplast. [48],[49],[50]

In humans (as in all other mammals and most chordates), three forms of superoxide dismutase are present. SOD1 is located in the cytoplasm, SOD2 in the mitochondria, and SOD3 is extracellular. The first is a dimer (consists of two units), while the others are tetramers (four subunits). SOD1 and SOD3 contain copper and zinc, while SOD2 has manganese in its reactive center. [51]

Catalase

Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms, which are exposed to oxygen, where it functions to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. [52] Hydrogen peroxide is a harmful by-product of many normal metabolic processes: to prevent damage, it must be quickly converted into other, less dangerous substances. To this end, catalase is frequently used by cells to rapidly catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into less reactive gaseous oxygen and water molecules. [53] All known animals use catalase in every organ, with particularly high concentrations occurring in the liver. [54]

Glutathione systems

The glutathione system includes glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, and glutathione S-transferases. This system is found in animals, plants, and microorganisms. [55] Glutathione peroxidase is an enzyme containing four selenium-cofactors that catalyze the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides. There are at least four different glutathione peroxidase isozymes in animals. [56] Glutathione peroxidase 1 is the most abundant and is a very efficient scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, while glutathione peroxidase 4 is most active with lipid hydroperoxides. The glutathione S-transferases show high activity with lipid peroxides. These enzymes are at particularly high levels in the liver and also serve in detoxification metabolism. [57]


  Nonenzymatic Top


Ascorbic acid

Ascorbic acid or "vitamin C" is a monosaccharide antioxidantfound in both animals and plants. As it cannot be synthesized in humans and must be obtained from the diet, it is a vitamin. [58] Most other animals are able to produce this compound in their bodies and do not require it in their diets. In cells, it is maintained in its reduced form by reaction with glutathione, which can be catalyzed by protein disulfide isomerase and glutaredoxins. [59] Ascorbic acid is a reducing agent and can reduce and thereby neutralize ROS such as hydrogen peroxide. [60] In addition to its direct antioxidant effects, ascorbic acid is also a substrate for the antioxidant enzyme ascorbate peroxidase, a function that is particularly important in stress resistance in plants. [61]

Glutathione

Glutathione is a cysteine-containing peptide found in mostforms of aerobic life. [62] It is not required in the diet and is instead synthesized in cells from its constituent amino acids. Glutathione has antioxidant properties since the thiol group in its cysteine moiety is a reducing agent and can be reversibly oxidized and reduced. In cells, glutathione is maintained in the reduced form by the enzyme glutathione reductase and in turn reduces other metabolites and enzyme systems as well as reacting directly with oxidants. [63] Due to its high concentration and central role in maintaining the cell's redox state, glutathione is one of the most important cellular antioxidants. [33] In some organisms, glutathione is replaced by other thiols, such as by mycothiol in the actinomycetes, or by trypanothione in the kinetoplastids. [64]

Melatonin

Melatonin, also known chemically as N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, [65] is a naturally occurring hormone found in animals and in some other living organisms, including algae. [66] Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that can easily cross cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier. [67] Unlike other antioxidants, melatonin does not undergo redox cycling, which is the ability of a molecule to undergo repeated reduction and oxidation. Melatonin, once oxidized, cannot be reduced to its former state because it forms several stable end-products upon reacting with free radicals. Therefore, it has been referred to as a terminal (or suicidal) antioxidant. [68]

Tocopherols and tocotrienols (Vitamin E)

Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of eight related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties. [69] Of these, α-tocopherol has been most studied as it has the highest bioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and metabolizing this form. [70] It has been claimed that the α-tocopherol form is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, and that it protects membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction.[71] This removes the free radical intermediates and prevents the propagation reaction from continuing. This reaction produces oxidized α-tocopheroxyl radicals that can be recycled back to the active reduced form through reduction by other antioxidants, such as ascorbate, retinol, or ubiquinol. [72]

Uric acid

Uric acid accounts for roughly half the antioxidant ability of plasma. In fact, uric acid may have substituted for ascorbate in human evolution. [73] However, like ascorbate, uric acid can also mediate the production of active oxygen species.


  Plants as Source of Antioxidants Top


Synthetic and natural food antioxidants are used routinely in foods and medicine especially those containing oils and fats to protect the food against oxidation. There are a number of synthetic phenolic antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) being prominent examples. These compounds have been widely uses as antioxidants in food industry, cosmetics, and therapeutic industry. However, some physical properties of BHT and BHA such as their high volatility and instability at elevated temperature, strict legislation on the use of synthetic food additives, carcinogenic nature of some synthetic antioxidants, and consumer preferences have shifted the attention of manufacturers from synthetic to natural antioxidants. [74] In view of increasing risk factors of human to various deadly diseases, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural substance present in medicinal plants and dietary plats as therapeutic antioxidants. It has been reported that there is an inverse relationship between the dietary intake of antioxidant-rich food and medicinal plants and incidence of human diseases. The use of natural antioxidants in food, cosmetic, and therapeutic industry would be promising alternative for synthetic antioxidants in respect of low cost, highly compatible with dietary intake and no harmful effects inside the human body. Many antioxidant compounds, naturally occurring in plant sources have been identified as free radical or active oxygen scavengers. [75] Attempts have been made to study the antioxidant potential of a wide variety of vegetables like potato, spinach, tomatoes, and legumes. [76] There are several reports showing antioxidant potential of fruits. [77] Strong antioxidants activities have been found in berries, cherries, citrus, prunes, and olives. Green and black teas have been extensively studied in the recent past for antioxidant properties since they contain up to 30% of the dry weight as phenolic compounds. [78]

Apart from the dietary sources, Indian medicinal plants also provide antioxidants and these include (with common/ayurvedic names in brackets) Acacia catechu (kair), Aegle marmelos (Bengal quince, Bel), Allium cepa (Onion), A. sativum (Garlic, Lahasuna), Aleo vera (Indain aloe, Ghritkumari), Amomum subulatum (Greater cardamom, Bari elachi), Andrographis paniculata (Kiryat), Asparagus recemosus (Shatavari), Azadirachta indica (Neem, Nimba), Bacopa monniera (Brahmi), Butea monosperma (Palas, Dhak), Camellia sinensis (Green tea), Cinnamomum verum (Cinnamon), Cinnamomum tamala (Tejpat), Curcma longa (Turmeric, Haridra), Emblica officinalis (Inhian gooseberry, Amlaki), Glycyrrhiza glapra (Yashtimudhu), Hemidesmus indicus (Indian Sarasparilla, Anantamul), Indigofera tinctoria, Mangifera indica (Mango, Amra), Momordica charantia (Bitter gourd), Murraya koenigii (Curry leaf), Nigella sativa (Black cumin), Ocimum sanctum (Holy basil, Tusil), Onosma echioides (Ratanjyot), Picrorrhiza kurroa (Katuka), Piper beetle, Plumbago zeylancia (Chitrak), Sesamum indicum, Sida cordifolia,Spirulina fusiformis (Alga), Swertia decursata, Syzigium cumini (Jamun), Terminalia ariuna (Arjun), Terminalia bellarica (Beheda), Tinospora cordifolia (Heart leaved moonseed, Guduchi), Trigonella foenum-graecium (Fenugreek), Withania somifera (Winter cherry, Ashwangandha), and Zingiber officinalis (Ginger). [79]


  Antioxidant Potential of Indian Functional Foods Top


Concepts of functional foods and nutraceuticals

In the last decade, preventive medicine has undergone a great advance, especially in developed countries. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases, as most of them can be related to diet. Functional food enters the concept of considering food not only necessary for living but also as a source of mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for several diseases or enhancing certain physiological functions. [80] A food can be regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way which is relevant to either the state of well being and health or reduction of the risk of a disease. The beneficial effects could be either maintenance or promotion of a state of well being or health and/or a reduction of risk of a pathologic process or a disease. [81] Whole foods represent the simplest example of functional food. Broccoli, carrots, and tomatoes are considered functional foods because of their high contents of physiologically active components (sulforaphen, B-carotene, and lycopene, respectively). Green vegetables and spices like mustard and turmeric, used extensively in Indian cuisine, also can fall under this category. [82] "Nutraceutical" is a term coined in 1979 by Stephen DeFelice. [83] It is defined "as a food or parts of food that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease." Nutraceuticals may range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements, and diets to genetically engineered "designer" food, herbal products, and processed products such as cereals, soups, and beverages. A nutraceutical is any nontoxic food extract supplement that has scientifically proven health benefits for both the treatment and prevention of disease. [84] The increasing interest in nutraceuticals reflects the fact that consumers hear about epidemiological studies indicating that a specific diet or component of the diet is associated with a lower risk for a certain disease. The major active nutraceutical ingredients in plants are flavonoids. As is typical for phenolic compounds, they can act as potent antioxidants and metal chelators. They also have long been recognized to possess anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic activities. [85]

Indian dietary and medicinal plants as functional foods

Ingredients that make food functional are dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, oligosaccharides, essential fatty acids (omega-3), lactic acid bacteria cultures, and lignins. Many of these are present in medicinal plants. Indian systems of medicine believe that complex diseases can be treated with complex combination of botanicals unlike in west, with single drugs. Whole foods are hence used in India as functional foods rather than supplements. Some medicinal plants and dietary constituents having functional attributes are spices such as onion, garlic, mustard, red chilies, turmeric, clove, cinnamon, saffron, curry leaf, fenugreek, and ginger. Some herbs as Bixa orellana and vegetables like amla, wheat grass, soyabean, and Gracinia cambogia have antitumor effects. Other medicinal plants with functional properties include A.marmelos, A. cepa, Aloe vera, A. paniculata, Azadirachta india, and Brassica juncea. [86]


  Conclusion Top


Free radicals damage contributes to the etiology of many chronic health problems such as cardiovascular and inflammatory disease, cataract, and cancer. Antioxidants prevent free radical induced tissue damage by preventing the formation of radicals, scavenging them, or by promoting their decomposition. Synthetic antioxidants are recently reported to be dangerous to human health. Thus the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. In addition to endogenous antioxidant defense systems, consumption of dietary and plant-derived antioxidants appears to be a suitable alternative. Dietary and other components of plants form a major source of antioxidants. The traditional Indian diet, spices, and medicinal plants are rich sources of natural antioxidants; higher intake of foods with functional attributes including high level of antioxidants in antioxidants in functional foods is one strategy that is gaining importance.

Newer approaches utilizing collaborative research and modern technology in combination with established traditional health principles will yield dividends in near future in improving health, especially among people who do not have access to the use of costlier western systems of medicine.

 
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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016; 16(1)
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37 In vitro inhibitory activities of selected Australian medicinal plant extracts against protein glycation, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and digestive enzymes linked to type II diabetes
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38 Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Response to Wild Thyme Treatment Protects against Hypertension and Oxidative Stress
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41 Reactive oxygen species, health and longevity
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42 Delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity and oxidative stress markers in preeclampsia
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43 Redox-implications associated with the formation of complexes between copper ions and reduced or oxidized glutathione
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44 Increase of rutin antioxidant activity by generating Maillard reaction products with lysine
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45 Effect of static magnetic fields and phloretin on antioxidant defense system of human fibroblasts
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46 Effects of epicatechin gallate (ECG) on fetal bovine serum (FBS)-induced steatosis in human liver cell line L02 and 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes
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47 Modulatory effects of catechin hydrate against genotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis induced by benzo(a)pyrene in mice
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48 Hepatoprotective effect of ganoderma triterpenoids against oxidative damage induced bytert-butyl hydroperoxide in human hepatic HepG2 cells
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49 Effects of the Fruit Ripening Stage on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Polyphenolic Composition of Crude Palm Oil from Interspecific HybridElaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis
Juanita C. Rodríguez,Daniela Gómez,Deborah Pacetti,Oscar Núñez,Riccardo Gagliardi,Natale G. Frega,Myriam L. Ojeda,Monica R. Loizzo,Rosa Tundis,Paolo Lucci
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50 Isoconversional kinetic study and accurate determination of lifetime properties for thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation processes of Aronia melanocarpa
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51 Profiling of polyphenolics, nutrients and antioxidant potential of germplasm’s leaves from seven cultivars of Moringa oleifera Lam.
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52 Polyporus squamosus (Huds.) Fr from different origins: Chemical characterization, screening of the bioactive properties and specific antimicrobial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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54 Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in arsenic neurotoxicity: A review
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55 Alterations in antioxidant and oxidant status of children after on-pump surgery for cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart diseases
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56 Chemical analysis of Punica granatum fruit peel and its in vitro and in vivo biological properties
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57 Food Antioxidants and Their Anti-Inflammatory Properties: A Potential Role in Cardiovascular Diseases and Cancer Prevention
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58 Reviscometer Evaluation of the Skin Condition after Applying Retinol and Vitamin C Complex in Menopausal Women
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61 Hepatoprotective Effects of Propofol in Cisplatin Induced Rat Liver Oxidative Damage
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62 Interaction of gold nanoparticles with free radicals and their role in enhancing the scavenging activity of ascorbic acid
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63 Implication of oxidative stress in progression of diabetic retinopathy
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64 Functional Analysis of a Type-I Ribosome Inactivating Protein Balsamin from Momordica balsamina with Anti-Microbial and DNase Activity
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65 SOD3 Ameliorates Aß25–35-Induced Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells by Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Pathway
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66 Antioxidative activities of 62 wild mushrooms from Nepal and the phenolic profile of some selected species
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67 Rice Germosprout Extract Protects Erythrocytes from Hemolysis and the Aorta, Brain, Heart, and Liver Tissues from Oxidative StressIn Vitro
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68 Combined treatment of epigallocatechin gallate and Coenzyme Q10 attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via suppression of oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and cellular damage
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69 A simple and convenient method for the preparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates
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70 Safety, Tolerance, and Enhanced Efficacy of a Bioavailable Formulation of Curcumin With Fenugreek Dietary Fiber on Occupational Stress
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71 SOD3 Ameliorates H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells by Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Pathway
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72 Bond dissociation energies and enthalpies of formation of flavonoids: A G4 and M06-2X investigation
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73 Potential of morin and hesperidin in the prevention of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity
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74 Electron microscopic evaluation of milk thistle, chicory, and vitamin E effects on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat
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75 Enhancing antioxidant activity and antiproliferation of wheat bran through steam flash explosion
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76 Role of renin-angiotensin system in liver diseases: an outline on the potential therapeutic points of intervention
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77 Lead aggravates the diabetic-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats
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78 Skin aging and oxidative stress: Equol’s anti-aging effects via biochemical and molecular mechanisms
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79 Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits
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80 Structural, spectroscopic characterization of (E)-4-chloro-2-((4-methoxybenzylidene)amino)phenol as potential antioxidant compound
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81 Preliminary assessment of free radical scavenging, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing capabilities of organic fractions of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis.) skeels leaves
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82 Influence of the geometric isomers on the radical scavenging properties of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid: A DFT studyin vacuoand in solution
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83 Polyphenols contribute to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Phyllanthus debilis plant in-vitro
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84 Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino in Immunosuppressed Mice
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85 Synthesis, characterization, and antioxidant activity of Zn2+ and Cu2+ coordinated polyhydroxychalcone complexes
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86 Anti-inflammatory and anti-insulin resistance activities of aqueous extract fromAnoectochilus burmannicus
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87 Formulation and physiochemical study of a-tocopherol based oil in water nanoemulsion stabilized with non toxic, biodegradable surfactant: Sodium stearoyl lactate
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88 Application of graphene quantum dots decorated with TEMPO-derivatized zinc phthalocyanine as novel nanoprobes: probing the sensitive detection of ascorbic acid
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89 Neferine prevents autophagy induced by hypoxia through activation of Akt/mTOR pathway and Nrf2 in muscle cells
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90 Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Biomass Residue (Leaves) Generated from Bambusa tulda Plantations
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91 In vitro antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of transglutaminase-treated sodium caseinate hydrolysates
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92 Cytoprotective effect of seaweeds with high antioxidant activity from the Peniche coast (Portugal)
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93 Antioxidant properties comparative study of natural hydroxycinnamic acids and structurally modified derivatives: Computational insights
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94 The protective effect of Citrus limon essential oil on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by aspirin in rats
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95 Ligularia fischeriextract attenuates liver damage induced by chronic alcohol intake
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96 Parboiled Germinated Brown Rice Protects Against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury in Rats
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97 Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potentials of Extracts of Trametes lactinea Collected from Akure
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98 Pterostilbene Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes through Enhancing Antioxidant Signaling Pathways Mediated by Nrf2
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99 Bioactive Flavonoids, Antioxidant Behaviour, and Cytoprotective Effects of Dried Grapefruit Peels (Citrus paradisiMacf.)
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100 Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Redflower Ragleaf (Crassocephalum Crepidioides)Extract
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101 Effects of high-intensity ultrasound on drying kinetics and antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel
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102 Anti-hypertensive Herbs and their Mechanisms of Action: Part I
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103 DPPH radical scavenging and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects in extracts from Erythrina senegalensis (Fabaceae) DC
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104 Molecularly imprinted polymer microprobes for manipulating neurological function by regulating temperature-dependent molecular interactions
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105 Antioxidant, anticancer, apoptosis properties and chemical composition of black truffle Terfezia claveryi
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106 Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Its Relationship with Clinical and Laboratory Findings
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107 Collagen and Gelatin
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108 Linking Flavonoids to Gold - A New Family of Gold Compounds for Potential Therapeutic Applications
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109 Aspalathin improves glucose and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to palmitate
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110 Bio-Activation of Polyether Ether Ketone Using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation: A Kinetic Model
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111 Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Codonopsis lanceolata Leaves
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112 Mitochondrial modulators improve lipid composition and attenuate memory deficits in experimental model of Huntington’s disease
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113 Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant potentials of the leaves and seeds of Thai holy and sweet basils
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114 HPLC-Q-TOF-MS Identification of Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Peptides Recovered from Cherry (Prunus cerasusL.) Subproducts
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115 Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Fruit, Vegetables and Other Types of Food
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116 Probiotics - the versatile functional food ingredients
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117 Variation in the composition and oxidative stability of commercial rapeseed oils during their shelf life
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118 Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review
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119 Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids
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120 An Update from the Editorial Board of Nutrients
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121 An Overview of Carcinogenic Heavy Metal: Molecular Toxicity Mechanism and Prevention
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122 Naringin Reverses Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Associated with HIV-1 Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Metabolic Complications
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123 From 2000years of Ganoderma lucidum to recent developments in nutraceuticals
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124 Evaluation of membrane stabilizing, anthelmintic, antioxidant activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Neolamarckia cadamba fruits
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125 Baccaurea angulata fruit inhibits lipid peroxidation and induces the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities
Maryam Abimbola Mikail,Idris Adewale Ahmed,Muhammad Ibrahim,Norazlanshah Hazali,Mohammad Syaiful Bahari Abdul Rasad,Radiah Abdul Ghani,Ridzwan Hashim,Ridhwan Abdul Wahab,Solachuddin Jahuari Arief,Muhammad Lokman Md Isa,Samsul Draman,Mohammad Noor Adros Yahya
European Journal of Nutrition. 2015;
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126 Pretreatment with curcumin attenuates anxiety while strengthens memory performance after one short stress experience in male rats
Saida Haider,Fizza Naqvi,Zehra Batool,Saiqa Tabassum,Sadia Sadir,Laraib Liaquat,Faizan Naqvi,Nudrat Anwer Zuberi,Hina Shakeel,Tahira Perveen
Brain Research Bulletin. 2015; 115: 1
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127 Antigenotoxicity and Tumor Growing Inhibition by Leafy Brassica carinata and Sinigrin
María-Dolores Lozano-Baena,Inmaculada Tasset,Sara Obregón-Cano,Antonio de Haro-Bailon,Andrés Muñoz-Serrano,Ángeles Alonso-Moraga
Molecules. 2015; 20(9): 15748
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128 Transcriptome analysis reveals the oxidative stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Hongwei Zhao,Jingyu Chen,Jingjing Liu,Beizhong Han
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129 High-performance thin-layer chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry – A suited method for discovery and quantification of bioactive components? Exemplarily shown for turmeric and milk thistle extracts
Mahmoud N. Taha,Michael B. Krawinkel,Gertrud E. Morlock
Journal of Chromatography A. 2015; 1394: 137
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130 Accelerating the Translation of Nanomaterials in Biomedicine
Samir Mitragotri,Daniel G. Anderson,Xiaoyuan Chen,Edward K. Chow,Dean Ho,Alexander V. Kabanov,Jeffrey M. Karp,Kazunori Kataoka,Chad A. Mirkin,Sarah Hurst Petrosko,Jinjun Shi,Molly M. Stevens,Shouheng Sun,Sweehin Teoh,Subbu S. Venkatraman,Younan Xia,Shutao Wang,Zhen Gu,Chenjie Xu
ACS Nano. 2015; 9(7): 6644
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131 Antioxidants and vascular health
Alessandra Bielli,Maria Giovanna Scioli,Donatella Mazzaglia,Elena Doldo,Augusto Orlandi
Life Sciences. 2015; 143: 209
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132 Biological and physiological role of reactive oxygen species - the good, the bad and the ugly
L. Zuo,T. Zhou,B. K. Pannell,A. C. Ziegler,T. M. Best
Acta Physiologica. 2015; 214(3): 329
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133 Precautionary Ellagic Acid Treatment Ameliorates Chronically Administered Scopolamine Induced Alzheimeræs Type Memory and Cognitive Dysfunctions in Rats
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Pharmacologia. 2015; 6(5): 192
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134 Assessment of DNA damage using comet assay in middle-aged overweight/obese subjects after following a hypocaloric diet supplemented with cocoa extract
I. Ibero-Baraibar,A. Azqueta,A. Lopez de Cerain,J. A. Martinez,M. A. Zulet
Mutagenesis. 2015; 30(1): 139
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135 Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Harvest Time on Steviol Glycosides, Flavonoid Composition, and Antioxidant Properties inStevia rebaudianaBertoni
Silvia Tavarini,Cristina Sgherri,Anna Maria Ranieri,Luciana G. Angelini
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2015; 63(31): 7041
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136 The influence of heat treatment of chickpea seeds on antioxidant and fibroblast growth-stimulating activity of peptide fractions obtained from proteins digested under simulated gastrointestinal conditions
Monika Karas,Barbara Baraniak,Kamila Rybczynska,Jan Gminski,Katarzyna Gawel-Beben,Anna Jakubczyk
International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2015; 50(9): 2097
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137 Antioxidant properties of several coumarin–chalcone hybrids from theoretical insights
Gloria Mazzone,Naim Malaj,Annia Galano,Nino Russo,Marirosa Toscano
RSC Adv.. 2015; 5(1): 565
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138 N-trans-feruloyltyramine inhibits LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 macrophages: Involvement of AP-1 and MAP kinase signalling pathways
Yunyao Jiang,Lingling Yu,Myeong-Hyeon Wang
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2015; 235: 56
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139 Identifying Antioxidant Proteins by Using Optimal Dipeptide Compositions
Pengmian Feng,Wei Chen,Hao Lin
Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences. 2015;
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140 Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries
Sona Skrovankova,Daniela Sumczynski,Jiri Mlcek,Tunde Jurikova,Jiri Sochor
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(10): 24673
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141 Unpolished Thai Rice Prevents ACF Formation and Dysplastic Progression in AOM-Induced Rats and Induces Apoptosis Through Redox Alteration in CaCo-2 Cells
Achiraya Tammasakchai,Chaiyavat Chaiyasut,Suda Riengrojpitak,Prasit Suwannalert
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 16(7): 2827
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142 Edible freshwater macrophytes: a source of anticancer and antioxidative natural products—a mini-review
Tsun-Thai Chai,Keng-Fei Ooh,Yixian Quah,Fai-Chu Wong
Phytochemistry Reviews. 2015; 14(3): 443
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143 Protective effect of geranylgeranylacetone against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells
Yun Ji Kim,Joo Youn Kim,Sang Wook Kang,Gae Sig Chun,Ju Yeon Ban
Life Sciences. 2015; 131: 51
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144 Catalase Nanocapsules Protected by Polymer Shells for Scavenging Free Radicals of Tobacco Smoke
Lizhi Liu,Wei Yu,Dan Luo,Zhenjie Xue,Xiaoyun Qin,Xiaohua Sun,Jincai Zhao,Jianlong Wang,Tie Wang
Advanced Functional Materials. 2015; 25(32): 5159
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145 Metabolic Analysis of Various Date Palm Fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars from Saudi Arabia to Assess Their Nutritional Quality
Ismail Hamad,Hamada AbdElgawad,Soad Al Jaouni,Gaurav Zinta,Han Asard,Sherif Hassan,Momtaz Hegab,Nashwa Hagagy,Samy Selim
Molecules. 2015; 20(8): 13620
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146 Chrysin–benzothiazole conjugates as antioxidant and anticancer agents
Bhupendra M. Mistry,Rahul V. Patel,Young-Soo Keum,Doo Hwan Kim
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2015; 25(23): 5561
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147 The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease
Tom Clifford,Glyn Howatson,Daniel West,Emma Stevenson
Nutrients. 2015; 7(4): 2801
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148 The protective effects of oral low-dose quercetin on diabetic nephropathy in hypercholesterolemic mice
Isabele B. S. Gomes,Marcella L. Porto,Maria C. L. F. S. Santos,Bianca P. Campagnaro,Agata L. Gava,Silvana S. Meyrelles,Thiago M. C. Pereira,Elisardo C. Vasquez
Frontiers in Physiology. 2015; 6
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149 Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of Curcuma caesia Roxb. rhizome extracts
Heisanam Pushparani Devi,P.B. Mazumder,Laishram Priyadarshini Devi
Toxicology Reports. 2015; 2: 423
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150 Phytochemical Evaluation and Antioxidant Potential of Garcinia indica Fruits on H2O2 Induced Oxidative Stress in THP-1 Cell Line
G.C. Minakshi,K. Vasanth,Tanupriya .,K. Ilango,R. Mohan Kumar,Aruna Agrawal,G.P. Dubey
International Journal of Pharmacology. 2015; 11(7): 672
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151 Antioxidative Effects and Inhibition of Human Low Density Lipoprotein OxidationIn Vitroof Polyphenolic Compounds inFlammulina velutipes(Golden Needle Mushroom)
Mohammad Azizur Rahman,Noorlidah Abdullah,Norhaniza Aminudin
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2015; 2015: 1
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152 Redox Characterization of Functioning Skeletal Muscle
Li Zuo,Benjamin K. Pannell
Frontiers in Physiology. 2015; 6
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153 Synthesis of N-Mannich bases of berberine linking piperazine moieties revealing anticancer and antioxidant effects
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Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2015;
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154 Angiogenesis modulation by Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract and its fractions on chorioallantoic membrane and tumor induced angiogenesis
Venugopalan Rajesh,Kathirvel Gayathri
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine. 2015; 15(4): 257
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155 Potential biological efficacy of Pinus plant species against oxidative, inflammatory and microbial disorders
Aditi Sharma,Rohit Goyal,Lalit Sharma
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015; 16(1)
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156 Free Radicals: Implications in Etiology of Chronic Diseases and Their Amelioration through Nutraceuticals
Sadaf Kalam,Mir Zahoor Gul,Rupal Singh,Sravani Ankati
Pharmacologia. 2015; 6(1): 11
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157 Analysis of the effects of dietary fat on body and skin lipids of hamsters by Raman spectroscopy
Phiranuphon Meksiarun,Yui Maeda,Tatsuya Hiroi,Bibin B. Andriana,Hidetoshi Sato
The Analyst. 2015; 140(12): 4238
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158 Impact of Natural Juice Consumption on Plasma Antioxidant Status: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Fernanda Tonin,Laiza Steimbach,Astrid Wiens,Cássio Perlin,Roberto Pontarolo
Molecules. 2015; 20(12): 22146
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159 Seizure-Induced Oxidative Stress in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Sreekanth Puttachary,Shaunik Sharma,Sara Stark,Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
BioMed Research International. 2015; 2015: 1
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160 Effect of Celosia argentea F. Cristata (L.) Schinz. on Prostate Specific Antigen, Antioxidant Status and Hematological Parameters in Rats Induced with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia
Emeka Eze Joshua Iweala,Joyce Oloaigbe Ogidigo
Asian Journal of Biochemistry. 2015; 10(1): 42
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161 Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts ofSalvia officinalisandThymus vulgarisincreases their resistance to oxidative stress
Eva Horváthová,Annamária Srancíková,Eva Regendová-Sedlácková,Martina Melušová,Vladimír Meluš,Jana Netriová,Zdenka Krajcovicová,Darina Slamenová,Michal Pastorek,Katarína Kozics
Mutagenesis. 2015; : gev056
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162 Hepatoprotective effect of phenylethanoid glycosides from Incarvillea compacta against CCl4-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells
Ting Shen,Xueqin Li,Weicheng Hu,Lijin Zhang,Xudong Xu,Haifeng Wu,Lilian Ji
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry. 2015; 58(4): 617
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163 Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose using recombinant glucose oxidase expressed by Pichia pastoris
Yingxue Gong,Chuqiu Zhang,Qiuli Yan,Wenjing He,Wenjuan Xiao,Jianghai Lin,Zehuan Liu
Industrial Crops and Products. 2015; 77: 458
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164 In vitro antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-cholinesterase, and inhibition of nitric oxide production activities of methanol and hot water extracts of Russula rosacea mushroom
Ki Nam Yoon,Tae Soo Lee
Journal of Mushroom. 2015; 13(1): 1
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165 Taxifolin mitigates oxidative DNA damage in vitro and protects zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos against cadmium toxicity
Krishnan Manigandan,Richard L. Jayaraj,Kaliaperumal Jagatheesh,Namasivayam Elangovan
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2015; 39(3): 1252
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166 Efficient synthesis, antioxidant and antimicrobial profiles of 2-(arylamino)- and 2-(heteroarylamino)- 1,3,4,2?5-dioxazaphosphinin-2-ones
K. Uma Maheswara Rao,S. Santhi Sudha,B. Satheesh Krishna,P. Ramamohan,C. Suresh Reddy
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds. 2015; 51(2): 194
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167 Reactive Oxygen Species, Apoptosis, Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Inflammatory Diseases
Babatunji Oyinloye,Abiola Adenowo,Abidemi Kappo
Pharmaceuticals. 2015; 8(2): 151
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168 Assessment of the correlations between reducing power, scavenging DPPH activity and anti-lipid-oxidation capability of phenolic antioxidants
Yulin Zhang,Yixiao Shen,Yongchao Zhu,Zhimin Xu
LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2015; 63(1): 569
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169 Amelioration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate–oxidase mediated stress reduces cell death after blast-induced traumatic brain injury
Brandon P. Lucke-Wold,Zachary J. Naser,Aric F. Logsdon,Ryan C. Turner,Kelly E. Smith,Matthew J. Robson,Julian E. Bailes,John M. Lee,Charles L. Rosen,Jason D. Huber
Translational Research. 2015; 166(6): 509
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170 Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and anticholinesterase effects of Alangium salvifolium (L.F) Wang root extracts
Nasrullah Md,Haque Anamul,Yasmin Zerina,Ashraf Uddin Mohammad,Biswas Kushal,Saiful Islam Mohammed
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2015; 9(42): 1060
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171 Morin hydrate attenuates the acrylamide-induced imbalance in antioxidant enzymes in a murine model
Mahendra Singh,Rekha Jakhar,Sun Kang
International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2015;
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172 Antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate from unicorn leatherjacket skin as affected by prior autolysis
Supatra Karnjanapratum,Soottawat Benjakul
International Aquatic Research. 2015; 7(2): 101
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173 Bioactives in Commonly Consumed Cereal Grains: Implications for Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Yoon-Mi Lee,Sang-Ik Han,Byeng Chun Song,Kyung-Jin Yeum
Journal of Medicinal Food. 2015; 18(11): 1179
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174 Preferential regeneration of thioredoxin from parasitic flatworm Fasciola gigantica using glutathione system
Ankita Gupta,Tripti Pandey,Bijay Kumar,Timir Tripathi
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2015; 81: 983
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175 The effect of five Taraxacum species on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antiproliferative activity
D. Muñoz Mingarro,A. Plaza,A. Galán,J. A. Vicente,M. P. Martínez,N. Acero
Food Funct.. 2015; 6(8): 2787
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176 An investigation into the consumption patterns, attitude, and perception of Mauritians towards common medicinal food plants
M. Fawzi Mahomoodally,Nelvana Ramalingum
Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2015; 5(2): 99
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177 Mitochondrial and Oxidative Stress Aspects in Hippocampus of Rats Submitted to Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency After Exposure to Early Stress
Charles Francisco Ferreira,Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi,Diego Carrilho da Silva,Natividade de Sá Couto-Pereira,Carina de Souza Mota,Rachel Krolow,Simone Nardin Weis,Letícia Pettenuzzo,Flávio Kapczinski,Patrícia Pelufo Silveira,Carla Dalmaz
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178 Leaf extract of cracker plant (Ruellia tuberosa Linn) induces metal chelating activity and DNA strands break: implications for its antioxidant-prooxidant property
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Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine. 2015; 15(4): 319
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179 Antioxidative responses during germination in quinoa grown in vitamin B-rich medium
Andrea Pitzschke,Anna Fraundorfer,Michael Guggemos,Norbert Fuchs
Food Science & Nutrition. 2015; 3(3): 242
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180 Biomarkers of environmental stress in gills of Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus 1758) from Balearic Island
Antonino Natalotto,Antoni Sureda,Maria Maisano,Nunziacarla Spanò,Angela Mauceri,Salud Deudero
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181 Dietary vitamin E and fat intake are related to Beckæs depression score
Zarrin Banikazemi,Naghmeh Mokhber,Mohammad Safarian,Mohsen Mazidi,Hamed Mirzaei,Habibollah Esmaily,Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh,Fatemeh Ghafouri-Taleghani,Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan,Gordon A. Ferns
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 2015; 10(2): e61
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182 Antioxidant capability and phytochemicals content of Sicilian prickly fruits
Anna Maria Cova,Lucia Crascì,Annamaria Panico,Alfio Catalfo,Guido De Guidi
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2015; 66(8): 881
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183 HPLC-DAD System-Based Phenolic Content Analysis andIn VitroAntioxidant Activities of Rice Bran Obtained from Aush Dhan (Oryza Sativa) of Bangladesh
Hasan Mahmud Reza,Zarin Tasnim Gias,Priota Islam,Sadia Sabnam,Preeti Jain,Md Hemayet Hossain,Md Ashraful Alam
Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2015; 39(4): 462
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184 Free radical-scavenging activity of sequential leaf extracts of Embothrium coccineum
Miguel Leyton,Marco Mellado,Carlo Jara,Iván Montenegro,Sebastian González,Alejandro Madrid
Open Life Sciences. 2015; 10(1)
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185 OKN-007 decreases free radical levels in a preclinical F98 rat glioma model
Patricia Coutinho de Souza,Nataliya Smith,Oluwatomisin Atolagbe,Jadith Ziegler,Charity Njoku,Megan Lerner,Marilyn Ehrenshaft,Ronald P. Mason,Bill Meek,Scott M. Plafker,Debra Saunders,Nadezda Mamedova,Rheal A. Towner
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186 Preventive Effects of Tocotrienol on Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions and Its Relation to Oxidative and Inflammatory Biomarkers
Mohd Fahami Nur Azlina,Yusof Kamisah,Kien Hui Chua,Ibrahim Abdel Aziz Ibrahim,Hj Mohd Saad Qodriyah,David D. Roberts
PLOS ONE. 2015; 10(10): e0139348
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187 Curcumin and Vitamin E Protect against Adverse Effects of Benzo[a]pyrene in Lung Epithelial Cells
Wenbin Zhu,Meghan M. Cromie,Qingsong Cai,Tangfeng Lv,Kamaleshwar Singh,Weimin Gao,Chunhong Yan
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188 Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents
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Antioxidants. 2014; 3(1): 67
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189 Therapeutic potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa: A review of the scientific evidence
Soledad Guardiola,Núria Mach
Endocrinología y Nutrición (English Edition). 2014;
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190 Production of bioactive peptides using enzymatic hydrolysis and identification antioxidative peptides from patin (Pangasius sutchi) sarcoplasmic protein hydolysate
Leila Najafian,Abdul Salam Babji
Journal of Functional Foods. 2014; 9: 280
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191 Ultraviolet radiation induces stress in etiolatedLandoltia punctata, as evidenced by the presence of alanine, a universal stress signal: a15N NMR study
E. B.-I. Monselise,A. Levkovitz,D. Kost,K. Appenroth
Plant Biology. 2014; : n/a
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192 Inhibitory Effect on In Vitro LDL Oxidation and HMG Co-A Reductase Activity of the Liquid-Liquid Partitioned Fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon (Lion’s Mane Mushroom)
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193 Comprehensive evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity, total phenols and chemical profiles of two commercially important strawberry varieties
Pallavi C. Mandave,Pankaj K. Pawar,Prabhakar K. Ranjekar,Nitin Mantri,Aniket A. Kuvalekar
Scientia Horticulturae. 2014; 172: 124
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194 In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of acetone leaf extracts of nine under-investigated Fabaceae tree species leads to potentially useful extracts in animal health and productivity
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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014; 14(1): 147
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195 Free Radical-scavenging Potential of Methanol Extracts of Solanum surattense
Ankita Yadav,Richa Bhardwaj,Y.C. Joshi,R.A. Sharma
Research Journal of Phytochemistry. 2014; 8(4): 139
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196 Modification of the properties of biological membrane and its protection against oxidation by Actinidia arguta leaf extract
Sylwia Cyboran,Jan Oszmianski,Halina Kleszczynska
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2014;
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197 Response of thymus lymphocytes to streptozotocin-induced diabetes and exogenous vitamin C administration in rats
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Microscopy. 2014;
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198 Maternal Stress and Pregnancy Outcomes
Barthelemy Tandu-Umba,Donatien K. Dedetemo,Gilbert L. Mananga
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2014; 04(07): 361
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199 Investigations of anticholinestrase and antioxidant potentials of methanolic extract, subsequent fractions, crude saponins and flavonoids isolated from Isodon rugosus
Anwar Zeb,Abdul Sadiq,Farhat Ullah,Sajjad Ahmad,Muhammad Ayaz
Biological Research. 2014; 47(1): 76
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200 Antioxidant activity and phenol and flavonoid contents of eight medicinal plants from Western Nepal
Lalita Subedi,Sunita Timalsena,Pabitra Duwadi,Ritu Thapa,Anita Paudel,Kalpana Parajuli
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2014; 34(5): 584
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201 Protective effects of glucosamine hydrochloride against free radical-induced erythrocytes damage
Khadijeh Jamialahmadi,Omid Arasteh,Maryam Matbou Riahi,Soghra Mehri,Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani,Gholamreza Karimi
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2014; 38(1): 212
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202 Natural antioxidants against lipid–protein oxidative deterioration in meat and meat products: A review
Andrew B. Falowo,Peter O. Fayemi,Voster Muchenje
Food Research International. 2014; 64: 171
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203 Electronic structure of some thymol derivatives correlated with the radical scavenging activity: Theoretical study
Ashkan Jebelli Javan,Marjan Jebeli Javan
Food Chemistry. 2014; 165: 451
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204 Antioxidative effects of Kimchi under different fermentation stage on radical-induced oxidative stress
Boh Kyung Kim,Ji Myung Choi,Soon Ah Kang,Kun Young Park,Eun Ju Cho
Nutrition Research and Practice. 2014; 8(6): 638
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205 Identifying Early Urinary Metabolic Changes with Long-Term Environmental Exposure to Cadmium by Mass-Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics
Yanhong Gao,Yonghai Lu,Shaomin Huang,Liang Gao,Xuxia Liang,Yongning Wu,Jing Wang,Qiong Huang,Liuying Tang,Guian Wang,Fei Yang,Shuguang Hu,Zihui Chen,Ping Wang,Qi Jiang,Rui Huang,Yinghua Xu,Xingfen Yang,Choon Nam Ong
Environmental Science & Technology. 2014; 48(11): 6409
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206 Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact
Nuri Andarwulan,Desty Gitapratiwi,Arnaud Laillou,Dwi Fitriani,Purwiyatno Hariyadi,Regina Moench-Pfanner,Drajat Martianto
Nutrients. 2014; 6(11): 5051
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207 Antioxidative effects of fermented sesame sauce against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 porcine renal tubule cells
Jia-Le Song,Jung-Ho Choi,Jae-Hoon Seo,Jeung-Ha Kil,Kun-Young Park
Nutrition Research and Practice. 2014; 8(2): 138
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208 Effects of antioxidant supplements and nutrients on patients with asthma and allergies
Hortensia Moreno-Macias,Isabelle Romieu
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2014; 133(5): 1237
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209 On Robust Methodologies for Managing Public Health Care Systems
Shastri Nimmagadda,Heinz Dreher
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(1): 1106
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210 A Chemoinformatics Approach to the Discovery of Lead-Like Molecules from Marine and Microbial Sources En Route to Antitumor and Antibiotic Drugs
Florbela Pereira,Diogo Latino,Susana Gaudêncio
Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(2): 757
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211 Protective effect of curcumin against heavy metals-induced liver damage
Wylly Ramsés García-Niño,José Pedraza-Chaverrí
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2014;
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212 Neuroprotective effects of xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment
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Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2014;
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213 Antioxidative effects of fermented sesame sauce against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 porcine renal tubule cells
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214 Oxidative Stress Indicators in Patients with Prostate Disorders in Enugu, South-East Nigeria
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BioMed Research International. 2014; 2014: 1
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215 Creatine prevents the imbalance of redox homeostasis caused by homocysteine in skeletal muscle of rats
Janaína Kolling,Emilene B.S. Scherer,Cassiana Siebert,Eduardo Peil Marques,Tiago Marcom dos Santos,Angela T.S. Wyse
Gene. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
216 The Effect of Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Constituents of Laying Hens Grown Under High Ambient Temperature
Mohammed A. Al-Harthi
Italian Journal of Animal Science. 2014; 13(2): 3239
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
217 Potencial terapéutico del Hibiscus sabdariffa: una revisión de las evidencias científicas
Soledad Guardiola,Núria Mach
Endocrinología y Nutrición. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
218 Ulcer protective effect of Leucas aspera in various experimental ulcer models
Bibin Baby Augustine,Sathish Pitta,Mangala Lahkar,Suvakanta Dash,Pavan Kumar Samudrala,Jaya Mary Thomas
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2014; 4: S395
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
219 Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) root extract prevents impairment in characteristics and elevation of oxidative stress in sperm of streptozotocin-induced adult male diabetic Wistar rats
Nelli Giribabu,Kilari Eswar Kumar,Somesula Swapna Rekha,Sekaran Muniandy,Naguib Salleh
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014; 14(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
220 Assessments of antioxidant effect of black tea extract and its rationals by erythrocyte haemolysis assay, plasma oxidation assay and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay
Shumin Liu,Huihua Huang
Journal of Functional Foods. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
221 Phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of different fractions of Amaranthus graecizans subsp. silvestris (Vill.) Brenan.
Saiqa Ishtiaq,Mansoor Ahmad,Uzma Hanif,Shehla Akbar,Shehla Mehjabeen,Sairah Hafeez Kamran
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2014; 7: S342
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
222 Phytochemicals, Antioxidant and Anti-Lipid Peroxidation Activities of Ethanolic Extract of a Medicinal Plant,Andrographis paniculata
Vivek K. Bajpai,Pooja Agrawal,Yong-Ha Park
Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2014; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
223 Nutraceutical properties of phycocyanin
Berenice Fernández-Rojas,Jesús Hernández-Juárez,José Pedraza-Chaverri
Journal of Functional Foods. 2014; 11: 375
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
224 Curcumin supplementation improves mitochondrial and behavioral deficits in experimental model of chronic epilepsy
Harpreet Kaur,Amanjit Bal,Rajat Sandhir
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
225 Biological Properties of Melanoidins: A Review
Ewa Langner,Wojciech Rzeski
International Journal of Food Properties. 2014; 17(2): 344
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
226 Using coenzyme Q10 in clinical practice
Emily A. Brandmeyer,Qiuhua Shen,Amanda R. Thimmesch,Janet D. Pierce
Nursing. 2014; 44(3): 63
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
227 Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Aqueous Fruit Extract ofPassiflora ligularisJuss. on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
Palanirajan Anusooriya,Deivasigamani Malarvizhi,Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan,Kanakasabapathi Devaki
International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014; 2014: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
228 Probiotic potential, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Enterococcus durans strain LAB18s
Simone Pieniz,Robson Andreazza,Thiago Anghinoni,Flávio Camargo,Adriano Brandelli
Food Control. 2014; 37: 251
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
229 Hesperidin safeguards hepatocytes from valproate-induced liver dysfunction in Sprague-Dawley rats
Mangaiah Suresh,S. Narashiman Kishore Kumar,Srinivasan Ashok Kumar,Krishnan Thulasi Raman,Murugaiyan Uma,Periandavan Kalaiselvi
Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
230 Effects of Particulate Matter and Antioxidant Dietary Intake on Blood Pressure
Amy J. Schulz,Graciela B. Mentz,Natalie R. Sampson,J. Timothy Dvonch,Angela G. Reyes,Betty Izumi
American Journal of Public Health. 2014; : e1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
231 Protective effects of flavonol isoquercitrin, against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) - induced toxicity in PC12 cells
Kasthuri Magalingam,Ammu Radhakrishnan,Nagaraja Haleagrahara
BMC Research Notes. 2014; 7(1): 49
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
232 Protective effect of a hydroethanolic extract from Bowdichia virgilioides on muscular damage and oxidative stress caused by strenuous resistance training in rats
Jymmys Lopes dos Santos,Rafaela Eugênia Arce Dantas,Clésio Andrade Lima,Silvan Silva de Araújo,Elis Cristiane Valença de Almeida,Anderson Carlos Marçal,Charles dos Santos Estevam
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2014; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
233 Lipoic acid attenuates Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity in adult rats
Hamdy A. A. Aly,Ahmed M. Mansour,Memy H. Hassan,Mohamed F. Abd-Ellah
Environmental Toxicology. 2014; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
234 Antioxidant Activity and Mechanisms of Action of Natural Compounds Isolated from Lichens: A Systematic Review
Pollyanna White,Rita Oliveira,Aldeidia Oliveira,Mairim Serafini,Adriano Araújo,Daniel Gelain,Jose Moreira,Jackson Almeida,Jullyana Quintans,Lucindo Quintans-Junior,Marcio Santos
Molecules. 2014; 19(9): 14496
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
235 Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities and Phenolic Profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys
Laurian Vlase,Daniela Benedec,Daniela Hanganu,Grigore Damian,Ioan Csillag,Bogdan Sevastre,Augustin Mot,Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu,Ioan Tilea
Molecules. 2014; 19(5): 5490
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
236 Biofunctionalization of a-Zirconium Phosphate Nanosheets: Toward Rational Control of Enzyme Loading, Affinities, Activities and Structure Retention
Inoka K. Deshapriya,Christina S. Kim,Marc J. Novak,Challa V. Kumar
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2014; 6(12): 9643
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
237 HDL-Associated Paraoxonase 1 as a Bridge between Postmenopausal Osteoporosis and Cardiovascular Disease
Esin Eren,Hamit Yasar Ellidag,Ozgur Aydin,Necat Yilmaz
Chonnam Medical Journal. 2014; 50(3): 75
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
238 The antioxidative and cytoprotective effect of Lonicerae japonicae Flos water extracts on the ultraviolet(UV)B-induced human HaCaT keratinocytes
Seung-Hee Seo,Gi-Sang Bae,Sun Bok Choi,Il-Joo Jo,Dong-Goo Kim,Joon-Yeon Shin,Ho-Joon Song,Sung-Joo Park,Mee-Ok Choi
The Korea Journal of Herbology. 2014; 29(6): 63
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
239 Reducing X-Ray Induced Oxidative Damages in Fibroblasts with Graphene Oxide
Yong Qiao,Peipei Zhang,Chaoming Wang,Liyuan Ma,Ming Su
Nanomaterials. 2014; 4(2): 522
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
240 Nutrients Intake is Associated with DNA Methylation of Candidate Inflammatory Genes in a Population of Obese Subjects
Valentina Bollati,Chiara Favero,Benedetta Albetti,Letizia Tarantini,Alice Moroni,Hyang-Min Byun,Valeria Motta,Diana Conti,Amedea Tirelli,Luisella Vigna,Pier Bertazzi,Angela Pesatori
Nutrients. 2014; 6(10): 4625
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
241 Assessment of the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of a bloom forming microalgae Euglena tuba
Dipankar Chaudhuri,Nikhil Ghate,Shampa Deb,Sourav Panja,Rhitajit Sarkar,Jayashree Rout,Nripendranath Mandal
Biological Research. 2014; 47(1): 24
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
242 Food Functionality of Popular and Commonly Consumed Indigenous Vegetables and Fruits from Bangladesh
M. M. Towhidul Islam,Arnab Talukder,Taibur Rahman,Jahid M. M. Islam,Shahdat Hossain,Hossain Uddin Shekhar
Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2013; 04(07): 741
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
243 Comparative Study on Antioxidative Activity of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra Extracts by Country of Origin
Saet Byeol Han,Hyun A Gu,Su Ji Kim,Hye Jin Kim,Soon Sik Kwon,Hae Soo Kim,So Ha Jeon,Jun Pil Hwang,Soo Nam Park
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea. 2013; 39(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
244 Determination of Ultra Trace Levels of Copper in Whole Blood by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry
Tarik Attar,Yahia Harek,Lahcen Larabi
Journal of the Korean Chemical Society. 2013; 57(5): 568
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
245 Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained by batch cultivation ofPleurotus ostreatusmycelium
Emanuel Vamanu
Natural Product Research. 2013; 27(12): 1115
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
246 Antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of extracts from Rapistrum rugosum in Tunisia
Omri Hichri Amel,Besbes Hlila Malek,Ben Jannet Hichem,Lamari Ali,Aouni Mahjoub,Selmi Boulbaba
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2013; 3(5): 367
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
247 Antioxidant properties and neuroprotective effects of isocampneoside II on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells
Chuan-Ling Si,Ting Shen,Yun-Yao Jiang,Lei Wu,Guo-Jing Yu,Xiao-Dan Ren,Guang-Hui Xu,Wei-Cheng Hu
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013; 59: 145
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
248 A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: Natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives
Márcio Carocho,Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013; 51: 15
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
249 Engineering polypyrrole nanotubes by 100MeV Si9+ ion beam irradiation: Enhancement of antioxidant activity
J. Upadhyay,A. Kumar
Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2013; 33(8): 4900
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
250 A short review on the implications of base excision repair pathway for neurons: Relevance to neurodegenerative diseases
Anil K. Mantha,Bibekananda Sarkar,Gianluca Tell
Mitochondrion. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
251 Peel Effects on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and Making of Pomegranate Juice and Wine
Humaira Wasila,Xuan Li,Linwei Liu,Imran Ahmad,Sajjad Ahmad
Journal of Food Science. 2013; 78(8): C1166
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
252 Pleiotropic antioxidant potential of rosuvastatin in preventing cardiovascular disorders
Rajkiran Mahalwar,Deepa Khanna
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2013; 711(1-3): 57
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
253 Protein and lipid oxidative damage in healthy students during and after exam stress
Alireza Nakhaee,Fatemeh Shahabizadeh,Mozhgan Erfani
Physiology & Behavior. 2013; 118: 118
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
254 Polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived chromones exhibiting potent antioxidant activity
Yasser M.A. Mohamed,Anders Vik,Tim Hofer,Jeanette Hammer Andersen,Trond Vidar Hansen
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 2013; 170-171: 41
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
255 Reverse-phase HPLC Separation of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Hydrolysate Produced Peptide Fractions with Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity
Abraham T. Girgih,Chibuike C. Udenigwe,Rotimi E. Aluko
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2013; 68(1): 39
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
256 Resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits
Akshatha Shrikanta,Anbarasu Kumar,Vijayalakshmi Govindaswamy
Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
257 Clinical and research markers of oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease
Patrick Steven Tucker,Vincent James Dalbo,Thin Han,Michael Ian Kingsley
Biomarkers. 2013; 18(2): 103
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
258 Advances in Neuroprotective Ingredients of Medicinal Herbs by Using Cellular and Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease
Sandeep Vasant More,Hemant Kumar,Seong Mook Kang,Soo-Yeol Song,Kippeum Lee,Dong-Kug Choi
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013; 2013: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
259 Total polyphenolic content and free radical quenching potential of Dioscorea alata L. tubers
Narkhede, A. and Gill, J. and Thakur, K. and Singh, D. and Singh, E. and Kulkarni, O. and Harsulkar, A. and Jagtap, S.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 5(3): 866-869
[Pubmed]
260 Quantitative analysis of SOD2, ALDH1A1 and MGST1 messenger ribonucleic acid in anterior lens epithelium of patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
Strzalka-Mrozik, B. and Prudlo, L. and Kimsa, M.W. and Kimsa, M.C. and Kapral, M. and Nita, M. and Mazurek, U.
Molecular Vision. 2013; 19: 1341-1349
[Pubmed]
261 Protein and lipid oxidative damage in healthy students during and after exam stress
Nakhaee, A. and Shahabizadeh, F. and Erfani, M.
Physiology and Behavior. 2013; 118: 118-121
[Pubmed]
262 Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained by batch cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium
Vamanu, E.
Natural Product Research. 2013; 27(12): 1115-1118
[Pubmed]
263 Pleiotropic antioxidant potential of rosuvastatin in preventing cardiovascular disorders
Mahalwar, R. and Khanna, D.
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2013; 711(1-3): 57-62
[Pubmed]
264 Polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived chromones exhibiting potent antioxidant activity
Mohamed, Y.M.A. and Vik, A. and Hofer, T. and Andersen, J.H. and Hansen, T.V.
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 2013; 170-171: 41-45
[Pubmed]
265 Clinical and research markers of oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease
Tucker, P.S. and Dalbo, V.J. and Han, T. and Kingsley, M.I.
Biomarkers. 2013; 18(2): 103-115
[Pubmed]
266 Reverse-phase HPLC Separation of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Hydrolysate Produced Peptide Fractions with Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity
Girgih, A.T. and Udenigwe, C.C. and Aluko, R.E.
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2013; 68(1): 39-46
[Pubmed]
267 In vitro antioxidant potential and type II diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of traditionally processed legume-based food and medicinal recipes in indian himalayas
Talukdar, D.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2013; 3(1): 26-32
[Pubmed]
268 A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: Natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives
Carocho, M. and Ferreira, I.C.F.R.
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013; 51(1): 15-25
[Pubmed]
269 Phenological, Nutritional and Molecular Diversity Assessment among 35 Introduced Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Genotypes Grown in Saudi Arabia
Salem Alghamdi,Altaf Khan,Megahed Ammar,Ehab El-Harty,Hussein Migdadi,Samah El-Khalik,Aref Al-Shameri,Muhammad Javed,Sulieman Al-Faifi
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 15(1): 277
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
270 Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Streblus asper Leaves from Various Drying Methods
Nor Ibrahim,Ishak Mat,Vuanghao Lim,Ruzita Ahmad
Antioxidants. 2013; 2(3): 156
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
271 Hepatoprotective Effects of Ixora parviflora Extract against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice
Nai-Wen Kan,Wen-Ching Huang,Wan-Teng Lin,Chih-Yang Huang,Kuo-Ching Wen,Hsiu-Mei Chiang,Chi-Chang Huang,Mei-Chich Hsu
Molecules. 2013; 18(9): 10721
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
272 Markers of Oxidative Stress during Diabetes Mellitus
Brahm Kumar Tiwari,Kanti Bhooshan Pandey,A. B. Abidi,Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Journal of Biomarkers. 2013; 2013: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
273 Antioxidant properties and neuroprotective effects of isocampneoside II on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells
Si, C.-L. and Shen, T. and Jiang, Y.-Y. and Wu, L. and Yu, G.-J. and Ren, X.-D. and Xu, G.-H. and Hu, W.-C.
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013; 59: 145-152
[Pubmed]
274 The Potential Role of Azadirachta indica Treatment on Cisplatin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Female Rats
Mohamed A. Dkhil,Saleh Al-Quraishy,Ahmed M. Aref,Mohamed S. Othman,Kamal M. El-Deib,Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2013; 2013: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
275 Antioxidant activities of licorice-derived prenylflavonoids
Kim, H.J. and Seo, J.-Y. and Suh, H.-J. and Lim, S.S. and Kim, J.-S.
Nutrition Research and Practice. 2012; 6(6): 491-498
[Pubmed]
276 Functional foods and health concerns - Trends, hopes and opportunities in indian context
Singh, L. and Pracheta
Biochemical and Cellular Archives. 2012; 12(2): 207-236
[Pubmed]
277 Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of successive solvent extracts of leaves of Indigofera caerulea Roxb using various in vitro antioxidant assay systems
Guruvaiah, P. and Arunachalam, A. and Velan, L.P.T.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2012; 2(SUPPL.1): S118-S123
[Pubmed]
278 Evaluation of ethanolic seed extract of Lagenaria siceraria for their therapeutic potential
Gill, N.S. and Singh, S. and Arora, R. and Bali, M.
Journal of Medical Sciences (Faisalabad). 2012; 12(3): 78-84
[Pubmed]
279 Viscum album L. extracts protects hela cells against nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage
Önay-Uçar, E. and Erol, Ö. and Kandemir, B. and Mertolu, E. and Karagöz, A. and Arda, N.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 2012(958740)
[Pubmed]
280 Comparison of total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in cruciferous vegetables grown in diversified ecological conditions
Kapusta-Duch, J. and Leszczyńska, T. and Filipiak-Florkiewicz, A.
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria. 2012; 11(4): 335-346
[Pubmed]
281 Botanical origin causes changes in nutritional profile and antioxidant activity of fermented products obtained from honey
Dezmirean, G.I. and MÇŽrghitaÅŸ, L.A. and BobiÅŸ, O. and Dezmirean, D.S. and Bonta, V. and Erler, S.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2012; 60(32): 8028-8035
[Pubmed]
282 Naturally derived antioxidants in poultry nutrition
Christaki, E.
Research Journal of Biotechnology. 2012; 7(3): 109-112
[Pubmed]
283 Neuroprotective potential of phytochemicals
Kumar, G.P. and Khanum, F.
Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2012; 6(12): 81-90
[Pubmed]
284 Use of enzymatic hydrolysis of casein for the preparation of peptides with antioxidative activity [Zastosowanie enzymatycznej hydrolizy kazeiny do otrzymywania peptydów o aktywności przeciwutleniajacej]
Szołtysik, M. and Niedbalska, J. and Dabrowska, A. and Kupczynski, R. and Zambrowicz, A. and Pokora, M. and Babij, K. and Chrzanowska, J.
Przemysl Chemiczny. 2012; 91(5): 1014-1019
[Pubmed]
285 Chemical constituents with free-radical-scavenging activities from the stem of Fissistigma polyanthum
Fan, H. and Zheng, T. and Chen, Y. and Yang, G.-Z.
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2012; 8(30): 98-102
[Pubmed]
286 Analysis and Antioxidant Capacity of Anthocyanin Pigments. Part I: General Considerations Concerning Polyphenols and Flavonoids
Bueno, J.M. and Ramos-Escudero, F. and Sáez-Plaza, P. and Muñoz, A.M. and Navas, M.J. and Asuero, A.G.
Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 2012; 42(2): 102-125
[Pubmed]
287 Effect of diets supplemented with Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)] on some biochemical parameters in normal rats
Adefegha, S.A. and Oboh, G.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(2 SUPPL.): S558-S566
[Pubmed]
288 Protective role of Ficus carica stem extract against hepatic oxidative damage induced by methanol in male Wistar rats
Saoudi, M. and El Feki, A.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 2012(150458)
[Pubmed]
289 Phy to chemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq
Mbaebie, B.O. and Edeoga, H.O. and Afolayan, A.J.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(2): 118-124
[Pubmed]
290 Botanical Origin Causes Changes in Nutritional Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Fermented Products Obtained from Honey
Gratia I. Dezmirean,Liviu A. Marghitas,Otilia Bobis,Daniel S. Dezmirean,Victorita Bonta,Silvio Erler
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2012; 60(32): 8028
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
291 Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats
Mongi Saoudi,Abdelfattah El Feki
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 2012: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
292 Evaluation of Ethanolic Seed Extract of Lagenaria siceraria for Their Therapeutic Potential
N.S. Gill,S. Singh,R. Arora,M. Bali
Journal of Medical Sciences(Faisalabad). 2012; 12(3): 78
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
293 Effect of diets supplemented with Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)] on some biochemical parameters in normal rats
SA Adefegha,G Oboh
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(2): S558
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
294 Antioxidant activities of licorice-derived prenylflavonoids
Hyo Jung Kim,Ji-Yeon Seo,Hwa-Jin Suh,Soon Sung Lim,Jong-Sang Kim
Nutrition Research and Practice. 2012; 6(6): 491
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
295 Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of successive solvent extracts of leaves of Indigofera caerulea Roxb using various in vitro antioxidant assay systems
Ponmari Guruvaiah,Annamalai Arunachalam,Lakshmi Palanisamy Thanga Velan
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2012; 2: S118
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
296 Viscum album L. Extracts Protects HeLa Cells against Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Damage
Evren Önay-Uçar,Özlem Erol,Basak Kandemir,Elif Mertoglu,Ali Karagöz,Nazli Arda
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 2012: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
297 Analysis and Antioxidant Capacity of Anthocyanin Pigments. Part I: General Considerations Concerning Polyphenols and Flavonoids
Julia Martín Bueno,Fernando Ramos-Escudero,Purificación Sáez-Plaza,Ana María Muñoz,María José Navas,Agustin G. Asuero
Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 2012; 42(2): 102
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
298 Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq
BO Mbaebie,HO Edeoga,AJ Afolayan
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(2): 118
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
299 Biomedical studies on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte fragility during the process of aging
Arun Kumar
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2011; 1(1): 6
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
300 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Radical Scavenging Property ofFicus bengalensisL. Applying Various Spectroscopic and Spin-trapping Methods
Raj Kumar Salar,Leena Seasotiya,Suresh Kumar Rohilla
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature. 2011; 1(4): 248
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
301 Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effect of Enicostemma littorale Blume
Thirumalai T,Viviyan Therasa S,Elumalai EK,David E
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2011; 1(5): 381
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
302 Evaluation of phytochemical and antioxidant activities of the different fractions of Hybanthus enneaspermus (Linn.) F. Muell. (Violaceae).
Dinesh Kumar Patel,Rajesh Kumar,Damiki Laloo,Siva Hemalatha
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2011; 4(5): 391
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
303 Evaluation of Cassia tora Seeds for their Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity
N.S. Gill,A. Sharma,R. Arora,Dr. M. Bali
Journal of Medical Sciences(Faisalabad). 2011; 11(2): 96
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
304 Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the whole leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill.
Wintola, O.A. and Afolayan, A.J.
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2011; 7(28): 325-333
[Pubmed]
305 Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effect of Enicostemma littorale Blume
Thirumalai, T. and Viviyan Therasa, S. and Elumalai, E.K. and David, E.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2011; 1(5): 381-385
[Pubmed]
306 Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat
Thirumalai, T. and Therasa, S.V. and Elumalai, E.K. and David, E.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2011; 1(4): 323-325
[Pubmed]
307 Combined effects of p-coumaric acid and naringenin against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats
Shiromwar, S.S. and Chidrawar, V.R.
Pharmacognosy Research. 2011; 3(3): 214-219
[Pubmed]
308 Biomedical studies on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte fragility during the process of aging
Kumar, A.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2011; 1(1): 6-7
[Pubmed]
309 Evaluation of phytochemical and antioxidant activities of the different fractions of Hybanthus enneaspermus (Linn.) F. Muell. (Violaceae).
Patel, D.K., Kumar, R., Laloo, D., Hemalatha, S.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2011; 4(5): 391-396
[Pubmed]
310 Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of essential oil of eucalyptus leaf
Mishra, A.K., Sahu, N., Mishra, A., Ghosh, A.K., Jha, S., Chattopadhyay, P.
Pharmacognosy Journal. 2010; 2(16): 21-24
[Pubmed]
311 Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus leaf
Arun K Mishra,Neelum Sahu,Amrita Mishra,Ashoke K. Ghosh,Shivesh Jha,Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
Pharmacognosy Journal. 2010; 2(16): 25
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

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  In this article
   Abstract
   Introduction
   Free Radicals
   Concept of Oxida...
   Antioxidants
   Enzymatic
   Nonenzymatic
   Plants as Source...
   Antioxidant Pote...
   Conclusion
   References
   Article Tables

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