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Year : 2009  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 359-363 Table of Contents     

Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. - A comprehensive review

1 Department of Pharmacy, Vaish Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rohtak. Haryana, India
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, M.D. University, Rohtak, Haryana, India
3 Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication24-Feb-2010

Correspondence Address:
Manish Devgun
Department of Pharmacy, Vaish Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rohtak. Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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The Pterocarpus marsupium belong to family Fabaceae and is widely distributed in central, western and southern regions of India. The role of Pterocarpus marsupium as anti-diabetic has been very well established. Its extract has been prepared using many methods like infusion, maceration, decoction and percolation. Several chemical constituents like pterostilbene, (-)-epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupsin, etc., have been identified and isolated. Pterocarpus marsupium extract also shows promising results in cataract and hypertriglyceridaemia. This plant also finds its use as cardiotonic and hepatoprotective agent. Studies have also been reported to demonstrate its ability as a specific COX- 2 inhibitor. The present review explores its description, traditional uses, extraction methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity and commercial importance so that its potential as a multipurpose medicinal agent can be understood and appreciated.

Keywords: Extraction methods, Pharmacological activities, Pterocarpus marsupium

How to cite this article:
Devgun M, Nanda A, Ansari S H. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. - A comprehensive review. Phcog Rev 2009;3:359-63

How to cite this URL:
Devgun M, Nanda A, Ansari S H. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. - A comprehensive review. Phcog Rev [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Sep 17];3:359-63. Available from: http://www.phcogrev.com/text.asp?2009/3/6/359/59535

Abbreviations: COX- 2: cyclooxygenase- 2, LDL: low desity lipoprotein, VLDL: very low density lipoprotein, HDL: high desity lipoprotein, PGE2: prostaglandin E2

  Introduction Top

Plants are indispensable to man for his life. All phyta of plants viz. Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta, contain species that yield official and unofficial products of medicinal importance. The history of herbal medicine is as old as human civilization. The wealth of India is stored in the enormous natural flora which has been gifted to her. Endowed with a wide diversity of agro-climatic conditions, India is virtually herbarium of the world. The importance of medicinal and aromatic plants has been emphasized from time to time. It is believed that the drugs of natural origin shall play an important role in healthcare particularly in the rural areas of India [1] . Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb is grown in deciduous and evergreen forests of central, western and southern regions of India. It is found mostly in the states of Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa [2],[3] .

  Taxonomical Classification Top

Domain : Eukaryota

Kingdom : Plantae

Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

Phylum : Magnoliophyta

Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

Infraphylum : Radiatopsis

Class : Magnoliopsida

Subclass : Rosidae

Superorder : Fabanae

Order : Fabales

Family : Fabaceae

Genus : Pterocarpus

Species : marsupium [4].

  Botanical Description Top

It is of moderate size to large tree. The height ranges from 15 to 30 meters. The stem is stout and crooked with widely spreading branches. The bark is thick and dark brown to grey in colour. Leaves are compound and imparipinnate. Leaflets are 5-7, coriaceous, oblong, obtuse, emarginated or even bilobed at the apex and glabrous on both surfaces. The petioles are round, smooth and waved from leaflet to leaflet, 5 or 6 inches long and there are no stipules. Panicles are terminal and very large; ramifications are bifarious, like the leaves. Peduncles and pedicals are round and a little downy. Bracts are small, caduceus, solitary below each division and subdivision of the panicle. The flowers are very numerous, white, with a small tinge of yellow. Vexillum is with a long, slender claw, very broad; sides reflexed, waved, curled and veined; keel is two pettled, adhering slightly for a little way near the middle, waved, etc., same as the vexillum. Stamens are 10, united near the base, but soon dividing into two parcels of 5 each; anthers are globose and 2-lobed. Ovary is oblong, pedicelled, hairy, generally 2-celled; cells are transverse and 1­seeded. Style is ascending. The legume, which is borne on a long petiole, is three-fourths orbicular, the upper remainder, which extends from the pedicel to the remainder of the style, is straight, the whole surrounded with a waved, veiny, downy, membraneous wing, swelled, rugose, woody in the center, where the seed is lodged and not opening; generally one but sometimes 2-celled. Seeds are single and reniform [3],[5] .

  Description of Drug Top

Drug consists of heartwood of Pterocaipus marsupium. It consists of irregular pieces of variable size and thickness. It is golden yellowish- brown in colour with darker streaks. It is very hard and brittle. In water it gives yellow coloured solution with blue fluorescence. Transverse section shows alternating bands of larger and smaller polygonal cells consisting of tracheids, fibre tracheids, xylem parenchyma and transversed by xylem rays. Xylem vessels are throughout distributed.

Tyloses filled with tannins are present. Tracheids are long, thick walled with tapering ends and simple pits. Xylem parenchyma cells are rectangular with simple pits and xylem rays are uni-to-biseriate. The calcium oxalate crystals are present and the starch is absent [2] .

  Synonyms Top

Sanskrit : Bijaka, Pitasara, Asanaka, Bijasra

Assamese : Aajar

Bengali : Piyasala, Pitasala

English : Indian Kino Tree

Gujrati : Biyo

Hindi : Vijyasara, Bija

Kannada : Bijasara, Asana

Kashmiri : Lal Chandeur

Malayalam : Venga

Marathi : Bibala

Orissi : Piashala

Punjabi : Chandan Lal, Channanlal

Tamil : Vengai

Telugu : Yegi, Vegisa

Urdu : Bijasar [2] .

  Ethnomedical Uses Top

The genus is widely distributed on the Earth and the astringent drug from this genus is known as 'kino'. The phloem of stem contains red astringent fluid present in secretory cell which exudes after given incision. Kino is odourless but has astringent taste and sticks in the teeth, colouring the saliva red in colour [6] . As astringent it is used in diarrhoea, dysentery, etc. Bruised leaves are applied on skin diseases, sores and boils. Wood is useful in treating diabetes [7],[8] .

  Extraction Methods Top

i) Infusion : The Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood has been used since ages to treat diabetes. The beakers made from heartwood are filled with water and allowed to stand overnight to give 'Beeja Wood Water' [8] . Mohire et al. prepared the aqueous extract of dried heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium by keeping in a beaker containing 100 ml. distilled water for 12 hours. The brown coloured aqueous extract with light blue shade on surface was collected in the morning and concentrated on the water bath. The product was dried using rotary evaporator, finally dried under sunlight and powdered [9] . Bose and Sepaha used central hard wood which was dried and crushed into coarse powder. The aqueous extract was prepared using 24 hours infusion in the strength of 1:8 which was prepared daily and consumed. They also prepared 7 days infusion in the same strength [10] . Gupta prepared the aqueous infusion of Pterocaipus marsupium by soaking 50 grams of saw dust of the wood in 500 ml. distilled water for overnight at room temperature. The supernatant liquid was collected and the final volume was adjusted so that 10 ml of infusion represented 1 gram of the crude drug. The infusion was stored in a sealed container in refrigerator at 4 °C for subsequent use [11] . Vats et al. grinded the dried bark into fine powder and soaked in equal volume of water, stirred occasionally and left overnight. The pulp obtained was filtered, the filtrate dried at reduced temperature and then after lyophilization the aqueous extract was collected [12] . Grover et al. and Vats et al. grinded the bark of Pterocaipus marsupium in an electric grinder. The powder was soaked in equal amount of water and stirred intermittently and then left overnight. The pulp was then filtered through a coarse sieve and the filtrate was dried at reduced temperature [13],[14] . Grover et al. prepared the aqueous extract by grinding the bark of Pterocaipus marsupium to coarse powder in an electric grinder and the powder obtained was soaked in 1500 ml of distilled water and stirred intermittently and then left stationary. After 36 hours, the mixture was filtered through a sieve lined with muslin cloth and the filtrate obtained was completely lyophilized to dry powder. This dry powder was stored at low temperature [15] .

ii) Decoction : The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia (1990) recommends 50-100 grams of the drug for decoction [2] . In one study, dried heartwood of Pterocaipus marsupium was pulverized, boiled with distilled water until the volume was reduced to less than 100 ml, and filtered, and the volume was adjusted to 100 ml in order to obtain an extract, 1ml of which corresponds to 1 gram of the drug [16] . Suri et al. prepared the decoction of powdered Pterocaipus marsupium heartwood in boiling water and then spray dried it [17] .

iii) Maceration : Ahmed et al. chopped the wood of Pterocaipus marsupium into small pieces and extracted in absolute ethanol for 1 week [18] . Joshi et al. collected the heartwood and cut it into very small pieces. Maceration with methanol was done for 7 days. The extract was vacuum dried and stored in a refrigerator until further use [19] . In one study, the alcohol extract of the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium was prepared by cold double maceration. The extract obtained was concentrated using a rotary flash evaporator and then dried in a desiccator [20] .

iv) Percolation : Sepaha and Bose used central heartwood, dried and crushed into coarse powder. The extract was prepared with the addition of 95 % alcohol in a percolator in the strength of 1:6 [10] . Chakravarthy and Gode cut the fresh bark into very fine chips and extracted with petroleum ether (60-80 ° C) in a Soxhlet apparatus for 24 hours [21] .

v) Hot Water Extraction : Maurya et al. and Handa et al. powdered heartwood (5 Kg) and exhaustively extracted with hot water (4x16 ml). The concentrated extract (500 g) was suspended in water (2.0 litre) and successively partitioned with ethyl acetate and n-butyl alcohol [22],[23] .

  Phytochemistry Top

The ethyl acetate extract of powdered dried heartwood of Pterocaipus marsupium revealed the presence of following constituents: pterostilbene, (2S)-7-hydroxyflavanone, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, marsupsin, pterosupin, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, (2R)-3-(p­hydroxyphenyl)-lactic acid and pm-33 [24] . Tripathi and Joshi isolated three compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction of Pterocarpus marsupium, retusin-8-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, naringenin, lupeol [25] . The resolution of ethyl acetate extract of the aqueous decoction of dried heartwood of Pterocaipus marsupium yielded pterocarpol among other compounds [16] . Handa et al. isolated and identified an isoaurone C- glucoside named as pterocarposide [23] . Suri et al. isolated a novel C­glucoside, 1-(2', 6'-dihydroxyphenyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside from the aqueous decoction of powdered dried heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium [17] . Maurya et al. prepared the aqueous extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium and isolated five new flavanoid C-glucosides: pteroside, pteroisoauroside, marsuposide, flavon C-glucoside, vijayosin and two known compounds, C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,6-dihydroxyl benzene and sesquiterpene [22] . In another study, the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium was extracted with ethanol in a percolator and the phenolic constituent was identified as (-)-epicatechin. Two sterols, sitosterol and stigmasterol were also isolated [21] . Tripathi and Joshi isolated two new flavonoid glycosides from the roots of Pterocarpus marsupium, 7-Hydroxy-6, 8-dimethyl flavanone-7-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and 7, 8, 4'­trihydroxy-3', 5'-dimethoxy flavanone-4'-O-beta-D­glucopyranoside [26] . The structures of some of the important constituents are shown in [Figure 1],[Figure 2],[Figure 3],[Figure 4],[Figure 5],[Figure 6],[Figure 7],[Figure 8],[Figure 9],[Figure 10] [27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34],[35],[36] .

  Pharmacology Top

i) Antidiabetic/Antihyperglycaemic/Hypoglycaemic activity

Grover et al. reviewed the medicinal plants having anti diabetic potential and found Pterocaipus marsupium to be one of the promising plants [37] . Dhanabal et al. prepared the alcoholic extract of the bark of Pterocaipus marsupium and successively extracted with toluene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. These fractions were found to have beneficial effects on blood glucose levels [20] . A flexible dose double blind multicenter randomized controlled trial undertaken from October 1995 till January 1998 concluded that vijayasar is an effective blood glucose lowering agent, its glycaemic effect being comparable to that of tolbutamide in treatment of naive patients with Type 2 diabetes [38] . In another study, an aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood was screened for hypoglycemic activity on alloxan induced diabetic rats and the results were found to be statistically significant [39] . Vats et al. extracted the bark of Pterocaipus marsupium and assessed the anti­hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Pterocarpus marsupium in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats. This study showed that the extract exhibited a small but significant hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and a significant and clear dose dependent anti-hyperglycemic effect [14] . Manickam et al. evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic activity of phenolics from Pterocarpus marsupium. Marsupsin and pterostilbene significantly lowered the blood glucose level of hyperglycemic rats [40] . A clinical study was conducted on potent hypoglycaemic plants and the result indicated that Pterocarpus marsupium is useful for treating non-obese diabetes [41] . Ahmad et al. extracted the wood of Pterocaipus marsupium with absolute ethanol and then took the ethyl acetate soluble fractions which when tested upon alloxan-diabetic rats significantly lowered the blood sugar level with a corresponding increase in blood insulin level [18] .

(ii)Anti-hyperinsulinaemic and anti-hyper triglyceridaemic activity

The aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium bark substantially prevented insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) and hypertriglyceridaemia [15] . In another study, Jahromi and Ray administered the ethyl acetate extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium in rats for 14 consecutive days. The results proved that there is a significant reduction of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL- and VLDL- cholesterol without any significant effect on the level of HDL- cholesterol [16] .

iii) Cardiotonic activity

In one study, it was observed that at a very high dilution the aqueous extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium produced negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects in frogs. The results showed that the aqueous extract of Pterocaipus marsupium possesses an excellent cardiotonic activity [9] . In another study, (-)- epicatechin extracted from the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium was studied and it showed cardiac stimulant activity in perfused frog hearts producing increase in force along with increase in rate. Thus (-)-epicatechin showed a cardiac stimulant property [21] .

iv) Anti-cataract activity

Vats et al. demonstrated the anti-cataract activity of the aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium bark. This was evident from the decreased opacity index in the alloxan induced diabetic rats [12] .

v) COX-2 Inhibition

Hougee et al. performed a study in which a PGE 2 inhibitory effect of a commercially available extract of Pterocarpus marsupium, characterized by pterostilbene, was demonstrated. Pterocaipus marsupium extract decreases PGE 2 production indicating COX-2 specific inhibition [42] .

vi) Hepatoprotective activity

In one study, it was demonstrated that the methanol extract of stem bark of Pterocarpus marsupium possesses hepatoprotective activity [43] .

  Antidiabetic Preparations in India Containing Pterocarpus Marsupium Top

Some of the popular anti diabetic preparations, marketed in India, containing Pterocarpus marsupium among other ingredients are given in [Table 1].

  Conclusion Top

In developing countries, providing modern healthcare facilities is still in infancy. Due to economic constraint, it is prudent to look for options in herbal medicines. Pterocarpus marsupium has been used as anti-diabetic since time immemorial. The beakers made from heartwood are filled with water and are allowed to stand overnight to give "Beeja Wood Water". Pterocaipus marsupium is being used commercially in pharmaceutical preparations. This paper also reveals that the Pterocarpus marsupium has been extracted using variety of methods like infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation. In the Pterocarpus marsupium extract many chemical constituents like pterostilbene, marsupsin, pterosupin, (-)-epicatechin etc. have been identified and isolated. The literature review revealed that Pterocarpus marsupium can be used in variety of pharmacological disorders, however more investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of its active principles so that it's potential can be fully utilized.

  References Top

1.C.K. Kokate, A.P. Purohit and S.B. Gokhale, Pharmacognosy, (Nirali Prakashan, Pune, 2007) 1-57.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part -I, Vol.-I, (The Controller of Publications, Civil Lines, Delhi, 1990) 12-13.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.V. Rajpal. Standardization of Botanicals, testing and extraction methods of medicinal herbs, Vol. II, (Eastern Publisher, New Delhi, 2005) 296-306.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Pterocarpus marsupium marsupium. Available at http://www.zipcodeZoo.com; Accessed April 27, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Heart foundation resource page. Pterocarpus marsupium. Available at http://www.heart-intl.net/HEART /AlterMed/Complete/India/Herbs from India.htm; Accessed April 27, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.S.H. Ansari, Pharmacognosy, (Tara Publishers, Delhi, 1997) 95-96.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.R. Sharma, Medicinal plants of India-An Encyclopaedia, (Daya publishing house, Delhi, 2003) 206.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.W.C. Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 15th ed. (Elsevier Limited, Philadelphia, 2002) 414-420.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.N.C. Mohire, V.R. Salunke, S.B. Bhinse and A.V. Yadav. Cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium. Indian J Exp Biol. 45(6): 532-537 (2007).  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.G.C. Sepaha and S.N. Bose. Clinical observations on the antidiabetic properties of Pterocarpus marsupium and Eugenia Jambolana. J Indian Med Assoc. 27 (11): 388-391 (1956).  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.S.S. Gupta. Effect of Gymnema sylvestre and Pterocarpus marsupium on glucose tolerance in albino rats. Indian J Med Sci. 17: 501-505 (1963).  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.V. Vats, S.P. Yadav, N.R. Biswas and J.K. Grover. Anti-cataract activity of Pterocarpus marsupium bark and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extract in alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 93 (2-3): 289-294 (2004).  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.J.K. Grover, V. Vats and S. Yadav. Effect of feeding aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. Mol Cell Biochem. 241(1-2): 53­-59 (2002).  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.V. Vats, J.K. Grover and S.S. Rathi. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 79: 95-100 (2002).  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.J.K. Grover, V. Vats and S.S. Yadav. Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic pattern induced in the normal rat by feeding an aqueous diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate. Diabetes Obes Metab. 7(4): 414-420 (2005).  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.M.A.F. Jahromi and A.B. Ray. Antihyperlipidaemic effect of flavonoids from Pterocarpus marsupium. J Nat Prod. 56 (7): 989-994 (1993).  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.K.A. Suri, N.K. Satti, B.D. Gupta and O.P. Suri. 1-(2', 6'­ dihydroxyphenyl)-(i-D-glucopyranoside, a novel C-glycoside from Pterocarpus marsupium. Indian J Chem. 42B: 432-433 (2003).  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.F. Ahmad, P. Khalid, M.M. Khan, M. Chaubey, A.K. Rastogi and J.R. Kidwai. Hypoglycemic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium wood. J Ethnopharmacol. 35 (1): 71-75 (1991).  Back to cited text no. 18      
19.M.C. Joshi, M. Dorababu, T. Prabha, M.M. Kumar and R.K. Goel. Effect of Pterocarpus marsupium on NIDDM-induced rat gastric ulceration and mucosal offensive and defensive factors. Indian J Pharmacol. 36 (5): 296-302 (2004).  Back to cited text no. 19      
20.S.P. Dhanabal, C.K. Kokata, M. Ramanathan, E.P. Kumar and B.Suresh. Hypoglycaemic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Phytother Res. 20 (1): 4-8 (2006).  Back to cited text no. 20      
21.B.K. Chakravarthy and K.D. Gode. Isolation of (-) Epicatechin from Pterocarpus marsupium and its pharmacological actions. Planta Med. 51 (1): 56-59 (1985).  Back to cited text no. 21      
22.R. Maurya, R. Singh, M. Deepak, S.S. Handa, P.P. Yadav and P.K. Mishra. Constituents of Pterocarpus marsupium: an ayurvedic crude drug. Phytochem. 65 (7): 915-920 (2004).  Back to cited text no. 22      
23.S.S. Handa, R. Singh, R. Maurya, N.K. Satti, K.A. Suri and O.P. Suri. Pterocarposide, an isoaurone C-glucoside from Pterocarpus marsupium. Tetrahedron Lett. 41: 1579-1581 (2000).  Back to cited text no. 23      
24.R. Maurya and A.B. Ray. Constituents of Pterocarpus marsupium. J Nat Prod. 47(1): 179-181 (1984).  Back to cited text no. 24      
25.J. Tripathi and T. Joshi. Flavonoids from Pterocarpus marsupium. Planta Med. 54 (4): 371-372 (1988).  Back to cited text no. 25      
26.J. Tripathi and T. Joshi. Phytochemical investigation of roots of Pterocarpus marsupium. Isolation and structural studies of two new flavanone glycosides. Z Naturforsch C. 43 (3-4): 184-186 (1988).  Back to cited text no. 26      
27.Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia web page. Pterostilbene. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/pterostilbene; Accessed June 14, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 27      
28.Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia web page. Epicatechin. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/catechin; Accessed June 14, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 28      
29.Liquiritigenin-CAS Number 41680-09-5. Liquiritigenin. Available at http://www.rdchemicals.com; Accessed June 14, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 29      
30.Isoliquiritigenin-CAS Number 961-29-5. Isoliquiritigenin. Available at http://www.rdchemicals.com. Accessed June 14, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 30      
31.CTD: Marsupsin Chemical: marsupsin. Available at http://www.ctd.mdibl.org; Accessed June 19, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 31      
32.CTD: Pterosupin. Chemical: pterosupin. Available at http://www.ctd.mdibl.org; Accessed June 19, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 32      
33.Lupeol-CAS Number 545-47-1. Lupeol. Available at http://www.rdchemicals.com; Accessed June 19, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 33      
34.Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia web page. Beta-Sitosterol. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/beta-Sitosterol; Accessed June 19, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 34      
35.Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia web page. Stigmasterol. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stigmasterol; Accessed June 19, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 35      
36.Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia web page. Naringenin Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/naringenin; Accessed June 18, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 36      
37.J.K. Grover, S. Yadav and V. Vats. Medicinal plants of India with anti­diabetic potential. J Ethnopharmacol. 81: 81-100 (2002).  Back to cited text no. 37      
38.R.S. Hariharan et al. Efficacy of vijayasar (Pterocarpus marsupium) in the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a flexible dose double-blind multicenter randomized controlled trial. Diabetol Croat. 34 (1): 13-20 (2005).  Back to cited text no. 38      
39.H.M. Mukhtar, S.H. Ansari, M. Ali, Z.A. Bhatt and T. Naved. Effect of aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Pharmazie. 60(6): 478-479 (2005).  Back to cited text no. 39      
40.M. Manickam, M. Ramanathan, M.AR Jahromi, J.P.N. Chansouria and A.B. Ray. Antihyperglycaemic activity of phenolics from Pterocarpus marsupium. J Nat Prod. 60 (6): 609-610 (1997).  Back to cited text no. 40      
41.O.P. Upadhyay, R.H. Singh and S.K. Dutta. Studies on antidiabetic medicinal plants used in Indian folk-lore. Sacitra Ayurveda 48 (10): 949­-955 (1996).  Back to cited text no. 41      
42.S. Hougee, J. Faber, A. Sanders, R.B. Dejong, W.B.Vandenberg, J. Garssen, M.A. Hoijer and H.F. Smit. Selective COX-2 inhibition by a Pterocarpus marsupium extract characterized by Pterostilbene, and its activity in healthy human volunteers. Planta Med. 71 (5): 387-392 (2005).  Back to cited text no. 42      
43.K.L. Manikani, V. Krishna, B.K. Manjunatha, S.M. Vidya, S.D.J. Singh, Y.N. Manohara, A.U. Raheman and K.R. Avinash. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of stem bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Indian J Pharmacol. 37(3): 165-168 (2005)  Back to cited text no. 43      


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10]

  [Table 1]

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