|Year : 2009 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 330-341
Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders
Arjun Patra1, Shivesh Jha2, P Narasimha Murthy3
1 Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, College of Pharmacy, IFTM, Moradabad- 244 001, U.P, India
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra-835 215, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
3 Royal College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, Berhampur-760 002, Orissa, India
|Date of Web Publication||24-Feb-2010|
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, College of Pharmacy, IFTM, Moradabad- 244 001, U.P
Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are mainly phytosterols, fatty acids, minerals, polyphenols, proanthocyanins, mucilage, alkaloids, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins and glycosides. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are lupeol, lupenone, 25-oxo-hentriacontanyl acetate, stigmasterol, betulin, β- carotene, hentriacontane, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 3-methylnonacosane, 23-ethylcholesta-11(12), 23(24)-dien-3β-ol, luteolin, asteracanthine, asteracanthicine, luteolin-7-rutinoside, methyl-8-n-hexyltetracosanoate, β-sitosterol, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, n-triacontane, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, maltose, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid etc. Ethanolic extract of the fruits, hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant and crude petroleum ether extract of the plant are having anticancer activity. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by the chloroform and methanol extract of the whole plant, and methanolic extract of the leaves. Antifungal activity against Aspergillus tamari, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger is due to the proteins and peptides present in the plant. Potential in treating liver diseases of the aerial parts, roots and whole plant was studied by various models viz. carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity, paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication, and galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. Seeds, leaves, aerial parts and roots showed antinociceptive activity which was studied using both chemical and thermal methods of nociception in mice. Some Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha formulations of the plant are claimed to have anabolic-cum androgenic like activity. The plant was also studied for haematopoeitic, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypotensive, diuretic, macrofilaricidal activities etc. Apart from the above established studies the plant is traditionally used for the treatment of anasaraca, diseases of urinogenital tract, dropsy of chronic Bright's disease, hyperdipsia, vesical calculi, flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, asthma, blood diseases, gastric diseases, painful micturition, menorrhagea etc. Therefore, these informations will help the scientists and researchers to screen the compounds responsible for different bioactivities and to elucidate the mechanism of action.
Keywords: Acanthaceae, Anticancer, Flavonoids, Hygrophila spinosa, Phytosterols
|How to cite this article:|
Patra A, Jha S, Murthy P N. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders. Phcog Rev 2009;3:330-41
| Introduction|| |
Medicinal and aromatic plants constitute a major segment of the flora, which provides raw materials for use in the pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and drug industries. The indigenous systems of medicines, developed in India for centuries, make use of many medicinal herbs. In one of the study of the World Health Organization, it is estimated that 80 per cent of the population of developing countries relies on traditional plant based medicines for their health requirements ,,, . Even in many of the modern medicines, the basic composition is derived from medicinal plants and has become acceptable for many reasons that include easy availability, least side effects, low prices, environmental friendliness and lasting curative property. The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined traditional medicine as "the sum total of all the knowledge and practices, whether explicable or not, used in diagnosis, prevention and elimination of physical, mental or social imbalance and relying exclusively on practical experience and observation handed down from generation to generation, whether verbally or in writing"  . All traditional medicines have their roots in folk medicines and household remedies. WHO has listed 20,000 medicinal plants used in different parts of the world. Other estimates indicate the number to range between 35,000 and 70,000 worldwide , . Plant derived products are present in 14 of the 15 therapeutic categories of pharmaceutical preparations, which are currently recommended to medical practitioners in U. K. and they form an important part of health care system in the western world  . There are several factors for the continued popularity of traditional drugs and one is their ready availability as compared to the modern medicines besides the adverse effects of synthetic drugs  .
Plants can, therefore, be described as the major source of medicine, not only as isolated active principles to be dispensed in standardized dosage forms but also as crude drugs for the population of developing countries. World Health Organization (WHO) has stressed the need to promote the indigenous systems of medicine among the rural population of the Third World Countries  . This has led to an awareness of alternative systems of medicine, still practiced and found satisfactory by threequarters of the world's population. On the other hand, the revival interest in herbal medicine as a system of natural cure has emerged as a new trend in the west.
Many drugs of modern medicine have had their origin in traditional medicine. Some common examples include the discovery of the alkaloid diosgenin in Dioscorea deltoidea used as source for the partial synthesis of cortisone and steroid hormones in the forties, the discovery of the hypotensive alkaloid reserpine in Rauvolfia serpentina and the analgesic alkaloid aspirin in Filipendula ulmaria in the fifties, the discovery of antiasthmatic alkaloid ephedrine in Ephedra sinica and the anticancer alkaloid podophyllotoxin in Podophyllum hexandrum in the sixties, etc.
The genus Hygrophila is an angiospermic plant belonging to the family Acanthaceae. The family composes of a number of genus and species having medicinal value and they are usually perennial herbs or shrubs, rarely trees; some are lianes, xerophytes, aquatica, or mesophytes. From related families, the plants of Acanthaceae are distinguished by a number of characters, notably the presence of cystolith in vegetative organs, the presence and development of floral bracts and bracteoles, usually bilabiate corollas associated with the bilocular ovary, generally bivalvate elastically dehiscing capsules, and usually by the curved retinacula supporting the seeds. The anthers and stamens provide many diagnostic characters of the genera. Some species of Hygrophila are: H. salicifolia, H. phlomoides, H. quadrivalvis Nees, H. serphyllum T. Anders, H. spinosa T. Anders, H. obovata, H. ringens, H. polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders, H. difformis, H. erecta, H. megalantha, H. pogonocalyx, H. balsamica, etc ,,,, .
Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders contains various groups of phytoconstituents viz. phytosterols, fatty acids, minerals, polyphenols, proanthocyanins, mucilage, alkaloids, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins, glycosides etc and is useful in the treatment of anasaraca, diseases of urinogenital tract, dropsy of chronic Bright's disease, hyperdipsia, vesical calculi, flatulence, diarrhea , dysentery, leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, asthma, blood diseases, gastric diseases, painful micturition, menorrhagea etc ,,,, .
Description of Hygrophila spinosa
Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal ,,,, . It is a stout herb with numerous fasciculate usually unbranched subquadrangular erect stems, 0.6-1.5 m high, thickened at the nodes, more or less hispid with long hairs, especially below each node. Leaves sparsely hispid on both sides, tapering at the base, sessile, in verticels of 6 at a node, the 2 outer leaves of the whorl larger, reaching 18 by 1.3-3.2 cm, oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, the 4 inner leaves (two on each side) reaching about 3.8 cm long, each of the 6 leaves with nearly straight sharp yellow spine, 2.5-4.5 cm long, in its axil. Flowers in whorl of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node; bracts about 2.5 cm long, like the leaves, lanceolate, hairy and ciliate; bracteoles 2 cm long, linear-lanceolate, with hyaline margin in the lower part, hairy and ciliate with long white hairs. Calyx 4 partite; upper sepal 1.6-2 cm long, broader than the other 3, which are 1.3 cm long, all linear lanceolate, coarsely hairy on the back, and with hyaline ciliate margins. Corolla purple-blue, reaching 3.2 cm long, widely 2lipped; tube 1.6 cm long, abruptly swollen at the top; lips subequal, 1.6 cm long, the upper lip 2-fid with oblong truncate lobes, the lower lip with 2 entire crest like longitudinal folds or callosities on the palate, deeply 3lobed, the lobes oblong or slightly obovate, rounded or truncate. Filaments quite glabrous, one short and one long filament of each pair united at the base. Style slightly pubescent, filiform. Capsules 8 mm long, linear-oblong, pointed, 4-8 seeded, ovate-quadrate, black, compressed, hygroscopically hairy and 0.3 x 0.2 cm [Figure 1] , , ,,,,, . The various common names/vernacular names of the plant are Kakilakshya, Ikshugandha, Ikshura, Kokilaksha, Kokilanayana, Kshura, Kshuraka, Vajra, Gokhulajanum, Katreiriki, Ikkiri, Tal-makhana, Talimakhana, Gokhulakanta, Gokshura, Talimkhana, Kuilirakha , Koillekha, Koilrekha, Kolista, Talimakhana, Kolsunda, Talimkhana, Kuliakhara, Kantakalika, Nirmalli, Vayalchulli, Nirmulli, Neremulli, Nirumalli, Kettu, Nirguvireru, Nerugobbi, Neerugubbi, Nirguviveru, Kokilaksamu, Kantakulika, Kalavankabija, Eyitror, Ekharo, Dayingiwa, Kolavalike, Kolavali, Kolarind, Soopadan, Long-leaved barleria etc ,,,,,,,,,,,]29], . The botanical classification of the plant is:
Subkingdom Tracheobionta-Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta-Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta-Flowering plants
Family Acanthaceae-Acanthus family
Genus Hygrophila R. Br.-swamp weed
Species spinosa T. Anders
| Ethnomedicine|| |
The various Ayurvedic properties of the drug are: RasaMadhura, Amla, Tikta; Guna- Pichchhila, Snigdha; VeeryaSheeta; Vipaka- Madhura; Doshaghnata- Vatapittashamaka; Rogaghnata- Nadidaurbalya, Vatarakta, Vatavyadhi, Kamala, Jalodara, Yakridudara, Anaha, Udararoga, Pittashmari, Shotha, Kasa, Shukradaurbalya, Klaibya, Mootrakrichchhra, Ashmari, Bastishotha, Daurbalya; Karma- Nadibalya, Santarpana, Yakriduttejaka, Ruchya, Anulomana, Shothahara, Stanyajanana, Mootrala, Vrishya, Vajikara, Shukrashodhana, Balya, Brinhana  . Its uses in Ayurveda and Siddha are: Mathuraamlarasa; diuretic, aphrodisiac, pandu, dropsy, scanty urine, ascites; seeds are premeham and athisaram ,  . In Unani system of medicine it is Hot 1 0 , Dry 1 0 ; seeds are aphrodisiac, nutritive; leaves are diuretic, externally for lumbago and rheumatism  . It is a source of the Ayurvedic drug 'Kokilaaksha'  , Unani drug 'Talmakhana'  and Siddha drug 'Neermulli' that are claimed to have anabolic-androgenic activity  . The plant is used as antitumour  , hypoglycemic  antibacterial , , hepatoprotective  , low moluscicidal against Bulinus truncates  , demulcent, aphrodisiac and diuretic. The aerial part and root are used in herbal preparations , . The dose of the plant used in powder form is 3 to 6 gm ,, and various parts of the plant used are the whole plant, seeds, roots, leaves and ashes of the plant ,,, . Different morphological parts of the plant used traditionally for the treatment of various ailments are listed below [Table 1].
| Chemical Constituents|| |
Root of the plant contains essential oils ,, , alkaloids  , waxy substances, gum  , minerals as Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co & Cr  and phytosterols  ; alkaloids and sterols are present in the aerial parts  ; Seeds contain mucilage, potassium salts, diastase, lipase, protease ,,,,,,, , sterols ,,,,,, , alkaloids, fixed oils  , fatty acids  and minerals like Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co & Cr  ; Whole plant contains essential oil  , a straight chain ketone  and alkaloids  ; Leaf contains proteins, nitrogen, polyphenols  , minerals as Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co & Cr  , glycosides, reducing sugars  , acacetin, proanthocyanins, phenolic acid  ; hydrocarbons ,, , minerals as Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co & Cr  , alkaloids, mucilage, potassium salts, sugars, purine alkaloid ,,, , flavonoids, terpenoids  , manganese salts, potassium chloride & sulphate, fixed oils  are reported in the plant without any specification of the morphological part of the plant and ash from the root contains potassium salts  . Some of the phytoconstituents of the plant are summarized in [Table 2].
| Pharmacological Studies|| |
Hussein Ayoub et al.  studied the anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of the fruits of Asteracantha longifolia (L) Nees using the KB test system and the ED 50 found was more than 1 μg/ml in the KB cell culture. Further the antitumor activity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and sarcoma-180 bearing mice of the petroleum ether extract of the roots of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders was also studied  . The extract showed decrease in packed cell volume, increases life span of EAC/S-180 bearing mice in a day dependent manner and also inhibited the rapid increase of body weight of tumor bearing mice. Sub-acute toxicity study of the hydroalcoholic extract of the whole plant of H. spinosa showed no significant change in body weight, organ weight (heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen) and serum biochemical parameters. The LD 50 was found to be 3020 mg/kg body weight.The tumor reducing potency of the extract (300 mg/kg body weight) in DMBA (7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) anthracene) induced mammary tumor in female rats was assessed by recording the reduction in tumor weight .
Chloroform extract of the whole plant of A. longifolia (L.) Nees is active against Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236, Staphyllococcus aureus NCTC 6447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa i>NCTC 6750 and Escherichia More Details coli NCTC 8196; methanol extract is active against B. subtilis and S. aureus, but aqueous extract is not active against the above four strains  .
Petroleum ether extract of the roots of H. spinosa has no sedative-hypnotic action, but when administered i.p. to mice, significantly potentiated the sleeping time of chlorpromazine, diazepam, pentobarbitone, chlordiazepoxide and protected against strychnineinduced convulsions  .
Ethanolic extract and its chloroform fraction of the aerial parts of Asteracantha longifolia (L) Nees shows promising hepatoprotective activity, but the aqueous extract and methanol fraction of the ethanolic extract were inactive  . The ethanolic extract and its chloroform fraction significantly reduced different enzyme levels like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase and serum bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats; also reduced the morphological parameters in liver (liver weight and liver volume). Further Sen et al  reported that the leaf extract (3 teaspoon, twice daily for 7 days) of H. auriculata (K. Schum) Heine (Acanthaceae) commonly known as 'Kuilekha' is used for treatment of jaundice by the local people at Bargarh district, Orissa, India. The methanolic extract of H. auriculata also protects the liver against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats  .The acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of the roots of H. auriculata was evaluated by administering the extract orally to different groups at the dose level of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. All animals were observed for toxic symptoms and mortality for 72 hrs. No mortality was observed upto a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight. As per the ranking system European Economic Community (EEC) for acute oral toxicity, the LD 50 dose of 2000 mg/kg and above is categorized as unclassified (EC Directive 83/467/EEC, 1983). The extract has significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities in CCl 4 induced liver toxicity in rats. The extract significantly decreased the alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin in the treated groups as compared to the control. The in vitro antioxidant activity was studied using ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid methods  . Again Usha et al  have reported the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the roots of H. spinosa at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, orally in CCl 4 induced liver damage in rats. They analysed the levels of some known antioxidant (both enzymic and non enzymic) activities and histopathological studies to find out the hepatoprotective activity.
The anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous extract of leaves, aerial parts and roots of H. auriculata was studied using both chemical and thermal methods of nociception in mice. The extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses inhibited the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid and also increased the pain threshold of mice towards the thermal source. The activity was comparable to standard drug aspirin , .
Petroleum ether extract of the roots of H. spinosa at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (i.p.) once weekly for four weeks has changed serum aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol. Higher dose (80 mg/kg body weight) changed all the above parameters in mice including total bilirubin, nonprotein nitrogen, blood urea, plasma protein and WBC count, but low dose (20 mg/kg body weight) does not exhibit appreciable action. In daily treatment for one month, high dose (8 mg/kg body weight) slightly affects liver and kidney functions and metabolism (alteration takes place in case of transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and serum cholesterol) and hematological parameters (only WBC). Low (2 mg/kg) and moderate (4 mg/kg) doses do not produce any significant toxic action  .
Ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of H. spinosa at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight orally increases the haemoglobin, haematocrit, RBC and total WBC as compared with vehicle treated control rat haemogram. In anemic rats, the extract increases haemoglobin, haematocrit, and RBC count, but decreases serum iron and serum total iron binding capacity as compared with vehicle treated anemic control rats  . Pawar et al reported the LD 50 and haematopoietic activity of the petroleum ether extract of the leaves of A. longifolia in rats  . For LD 50 study the extract was administered i.p., in doses of 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500 mg/kg of body weight in different groups of animals. The LD 50 studies revealed that albimo rats tolerated a considerable high dose of the extract (1000mg/kg body weight, i.p.), without any manifestations. Haematological parameters were evaluated in the anemic animal model and it was found that the extract significantly increases the haematological parameters (erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, haemoglobin and haematocrit value).
Indigenous drug (Speman) of Himalaya Drug Company in which H. spinosa is an ingredient increases the maltase activity of dorsolateral prostate, fructose content of seminal vesicles along with coagulating glands, which confirms it's anabolic-cum-androgenic like activity  . One formulation of H. spinosa alone and also in combination with other two herbomineral formulations showed beneficial effects of various degrees in alcoholexposed and normal rats with respect to the sexual behaviour of animals. There was also improvement in the number of LH-FSH-producing basophil cells in the pituitary and raised level of circulating testosterone. The mean sperm count was also higher in the drug treated animals  .
Treatment of diabetic rats with the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of H. auriculata (100 and 300 mg/kg body weight) for three weeks showed reduction in blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxide in both liver and kidney. The extract increased the glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione s-transferase (GST) and catalase in the treated groups. Treatment with the extract also reduced lipid peroxidation that is associated with increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Hence the extract possesses antidiabetic and antioxidant activities  . Further the antioxidant property of the plant was also reported ,, . Administration of an aqueous extract of H. longifolia prior to glucose loading resulted in a significant increase in the glycogen content of liver and muscle, and a significant increase in triacylglycerol content of adipose tissue in comparison with control rats. However, the plant extract had no effect on the gluconeogenic absorption. It has been suggested to exert hypoglycemic action by mechanisms similar to those of sulphonylureas  .
Decoction of the whole plant and aqueous extract of ashes of H. spinosa showed diuretic action in rats, which was attributed to presence of potassium salts in high concentration , . Diuretic activity of A. longifolia is attributed to lupeol  . Lupeol also controls arthritis  and acts as chemopreventive and immunomodulatory  . Lupeol and b-sitosterol are having antipyretic  , hepatoprotective , , antioxidant, anticancer  and macrofilaricidal  activities.
The choloroform soluble alkaloidal fraction from the aerial parts of A. longifolia relaxes smooth muscles, lowers blood pressure of anaesthetized dog, possibly by vasodilation, stimulates respiration and has diuretic action on rabbits. Also the essential oil from the roots and aerial parts of the plant showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms  . Administration of aqueous extract of whole plant causes a continuous rise of blood pressure of anaesthetized cat and restores failing heart to normal in perfusion of frog's heart  .
The plant is having anti-convulsant, antineoplastic, hepatoprotective, antifungal, antispasmodic, antiinflammatory, diuretic, moderate antipyretic, hypotensive, vasodilatory, anabolic cum androgen like activity, bronchodilatory, antitumor promoting activity against chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in wistar rats. Administration of Kokilasha (A. longifolia), 8-10 gm (in divide doses) orally with milk or sugar for 3 months to fifty infertile couples with males suffering from oligospermia, necrospermia, less motile and unhealthy sperms showed appreciable change in viability after one month of treatment, including some change in morphological character of the sperm. In the 2nd month the semen analysis showed considerable improvement in number and motility and immaturity reduced. After three months of treatment normospermia developed in 80% of patients  .
Methanolic extract of the seeds of H. auriculata showed potent inhibitory action against leukotriene B4 biosynthesis in isolated bovine polymorphonulear leukocytes  . Ethanol and distilled water extract of the plant exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity, whereas significant analgesic activity was shown by petroleum ether and ethanol extract, when compared with respective controls and were comparable with those of standard drugs diclofenac sodium and analgin in albino rats and mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, orally  .
The crude petroleum ether extract of H. spinosa was found to possess low toxicity (LD 50 1gm/kg in mice) and effectively arrested neoplastic growth in swiss mice. The associated pathologic changes in blood cell counts and haemoglobin content due to oncogenesis in the host returned to almost normal by drug treatment. Treatment of the test animals with the drug, previously inoculated with 3 different strains of tumour cells in mice, resulted in the inhibition of tumour growth in all three cases. The drug significantly increased the life span in Daton's lymphoma treated mice  . The plant is also used for the treatment of urticaria  and one homeopathic medicine of the plant administered @ 3X twice a day cured a patient suffering from Hairy Cell Leukemia. The recovery was rapid and blood count stabilized; also there was relief from headache, red nodular urticarial eruption and insomnia  .
The antifungal activity of H. auriculata extract against Aspergillus tamari, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger is due to the proteins and peptides present  . The methanolic extract at 30 μg/ml dose is effective against Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia pseudomallei  . The aqueous and ethanolic extract of the whole plant of A. longifolia shows hepatoprotective activity against galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. The activity was assessed by examination of blood biochemistry and histopathological studies of liver  . Also the methanolic extract of the plant is an effective inhibitor of oxidative stress and oxidant induced post necrotic proliferation in rat liver  .
| Conclusion|| |
H. spinosa is widely distributed throughout India and is used for the treatment of cancer, arthritis, hepatotoxicity, inflammation, blood diseases, diabetes, fever, constipation, bacterial infection etc. The plant is also used as antioxidant, diuretic, hypotensive and macrofilaricidal, but the mode of action of for different bioactivities are not studied in detail. H. spinosa contains various phytoconstituents viz. alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, mucilage etc. which may be responsible for the different pharmacological activities. Hence, we can isolate some pure phytopharmaceuticals which in turn can be used as lead molecules for synthesizing novel agents having good therapeutic activity.
With regard to the development of quality herbal medicine the standardization of extracts, phytopharmacology of different extracts, isolation and characterization of active phytopharmaceuticals, elucidation of mechanism of action of the isolated compounds and clinical trial of the compounds are much needed. In the changing global scenario the interest towards plants with medicinal value is increasing substantially in the primary healthcare system both in the developed and developing countries. Therefore, the informations will help the scientists and researchers to screen the compounds responsible for different bioactivities, and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of action.
| References|| |
|1.||The Promotion and Development of Traditional Medicine. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 622:8, (WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1978)..0 |
|2.||In Progress Report by the Director General, Document No. A44/20, (WHO, Geneva, 1991). |
|3.||N.R. Farnsworth, O. Akerele, A.S. Bingel, D.D. Soejarto and Z. Guo. Medicinal plants in therapy, (Bulletin of WHO, 1985) 965. |
|4.||O, Akerele. WHO guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. Fitoterapia. LXIII: 99 (1992). |
|5.||A, Lewington. Medicinal plants and plant extracts: A review of their importation into Europe, (Cambridge, Traffic International, 1993). |
|6.||N. Bhattarai and M. Karki. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Ethnobotany and Conservation Status. In: J. Burley, J. Evans and J. Youngquist eds. Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences. Academic Press, London; 523-32 (2004). |
|7.||J.P. Phillipson and L.A. Anderson. Ethnopharmacology andwestern medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol. 25: 61 (1989). |
|8.||O. Akerele. Medicinal plants and primary health care: an agenda for action. Fitoterapia. LIX: 355 (1988). |
|9.||R. Bannerman and J. Burton. Traditional medicine in healthcare coverage, (WHO, Geneva, 1983) 1-342. |
|10.||J.S. Gamble. Flora of the Presidency of Madras, Vol II, Reprint edition, (Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 1967) 712. |
|11.||D. Prain. Bengal Plants. Vol II, Reprint edition, Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 1963) 598. |
|12.||L.V. Asolkar, K.K. Kakkar and O.J. Chakre, Second Supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants with Active Principles, Part I, (NISCAIR, CSIR, New Delhi, 2005) 362. |
|13.||The Wealth of India- Raw Materials, Vol V, (CSIR,New Delhi, 2001) 148. |
|14.||R.N. Chopraa, I.C. Chopra and B.S. Verma. Supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, (NISCAIR, CSIR, New Delhi, 2005) 43. |
|15.||A.K. Nadkarni. Indian Materia Medica, Vol I, (Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, 2007) 668. |
|16.||The Wealth of India- A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products, Ist Supplement Series (Raw Materials), Vol 3, (NISCOM, CSIR, New Delhi, 2002) 319. |
|17.||P.C. Sharma, M.B. Yelne and T.J. Dennis, Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol 4, (Central Council for Reseach in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi, 2002) 320. |
|18.||R.P. Rastogi and B.N. Mehrotra, Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol III, (Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, 1993) 351. |
|19.||R.N. Chopra, I.C. Chopra, K.L. Handa and L.D. Kapur, Indigenous Drugs of India, (UN Dhur & Sons Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta, 1958) 353, 603, 665, 693. |
|20.||R.N. Chopra, S.L. Nayar and I.C. Chopra, Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, (CSIR, New Delhi, 1986) 29. |
|21.||K.R. Kirtikar and B.D. Basu. Indian Medicinal Plants, 2nd edition, (LM Basu, Allahabad, 1933) 1861. |
|22.||K.R. Kirtikar and B.D. Basu, Indian Medicinal plants, Vol III, (International Book Distributors, Dehradun, 2005) 1863. |
|23.||H.O. Saxena and M. Brahmam. The Flora of Orissa, 3rd edition, (Capital Business Services & Consultancy, Bhubaneswar, 1995) 1578. |
|24.||J.D. Hooker. Flora of British India, Vol IV, (L. Reeve & Co. Ltd., Ashford Kend, 1885) 408. |
|25.||R.N. Chopra, S.L. Nayar and I.C. Chopra, Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, (NISCAIR, CSIR, New Delhi, 2006) 29. |
|26.||B. Mukerjii. Indian Pharmaceutical Codex, Indigenous drugs, Vol I, (CSIR, New Delhi, 1953) 28. |
|27.||M. Daniel. Medicinal Plants: Chemistry and Properties, (Science Publishers, Texas, 2005) 193. |
|28.||The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 1st edition, Vol II, Part I, (Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homeopathy, New Delhi, 1999) 88. |
|29.||Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol 4, (Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 2006) 154. |
|30.||C.K. Atal and B.M. Kapur. Cultivation and Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, (Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Jammu-Tawi, 1982) 548. |
|31.||G.V. Satyavati, M.K. Raina and M. Sharma. Medicinal Plants of India, Vol I, (ICMR, New Delhi, 1976) 107. |
|32.||L.V. Asolkar, K.K. Kakkar and O.J. Chakre. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants with Active Principles, (Publication & Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, 1992) 362. |
|33.||P.G. Jayatilak, D.S. Pardanani, B.D. Murthy and A.R. Seth. Effect of an indigenous drug (Speman) on accessory reproductive functions of mice. Ind. J. Expt. Biol. 14: 170-73 (1976). |
|34.||S. Ahmed, A. Rahman, M. Mathur, M. Athur and S. Sultana. Antitumor promoting activity of Asteracantha longifolia against experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 39: 19-28 (2001). |
|35.||M.R. Fernando, W.S.M.D. Nalinie Wickramasinghe, M.I. Thabrew, P.L. Ariyananda and E.H. Karunanayake. Effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracantha longifolia on glucose tolerance in normal human subjects in maturity onset diabetes patients. J. Ethnopharmacol. 31: 277-82 (1991). |
|36.||Y. Boily and L. Vanpuyvelde. Screening of medicinal plants of Rwanda (Central Africa) for antimicrobial activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 16: 1-13 (1986). |
|37.||A.J. Vlietinsk, L. Vanhoof, J. Totte, A. Lasure, B.D. Vanden, P.C. Rwangabo and J. Mvukiyumwami. Screening of hundred Rwandese medicinal plants for antimicrobial and antiviral properties. J. Ethnopharmacol. 46: 31-47 (1995). |
|38.||S. Shailajan, N. Chandra, R.T. Sane and S. Menon. Effect of Asteracantha longfolia Nees. against CCl4 induced liver dysfunction in rat. Ind. J. Expt. Biol. 43: 68-75 (2005). |
|39.||J.C. Kurian. Plants that Heal, (Orient Longman Publication, Pune, 1995) 42-60. |
|40.||The Wealth of India, (Publication & Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, 1948) 133. |
|41.||C.P. Khare. Indian Medicinal Plants- An Illustrative Dictionary, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelburg, 2007) 70-71. |
|42.||W.C. Evans. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 15th edition, (W.B. Saunders, Edinburgh London New York Philadelphia St Louis Sydney Toronto, 2002) 471. |
|43.||J.F. Duthie. Flora of Upper Gangetic Plain and of the Adjacent Siwalik and Sub-Himalayan Tracts, reprint edition. Vol II, (Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 1960) 55. |
|44.||R.N. Khory. The Bombay Materia Medica & their Therapeutics, (Raina's Union Press, Bombay, 1987) 426. |
|45.||The Wealth of India, (CSIR, New Delhi, 1969) 162. |
|46.||Medicinal Plants of India, Vol I, (Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 1976) 107. |
|47.||The Useful Plants of India, (CSIR, Aruna Printing Press, New Delhi, 1986) 60. |
|48.||S.G. Joshi. Medicinal Plants. 1st edition, (Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2000) 211. |
|49.||P.K.Warrier. Indian Medicinal Plants. In: A Compendium of 500 Species. Vol 3. Orient Longman Ltd., Kottakkal, France; 442 (1995). |
|50.||S.N. Yoganarasimhan. Medicinal plants of India (Tamil Nadu), Vol II, (Dr. S.N. Yoganarasimhan, Bangalore, 2000) 279. |
|51.||R.N. Chopra, I.C. Chopra and B.S.Varma. Supplement to Glossa9y of Indian Medicinal Plants, (Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, 1992) 9. |
|52.||S.K. Jain. Medicinal Plant Lore of the Tribal of Bastar. Economic Botany. 19: 236-50. (1965). |
|53.||The Ayurvedic Formula9y of India, Part I, (Ministry of Health and Family Planning, Govt. of India, 1978) 246. |
|54.||K. Biswas and E. Ghosh. Bharatia Banoshodi, Vol III, (University of Calcutta Press, Calcutta, 1977) 874. |
|55.||V.N. Naik. Flora of Marathwada, Vol II, (Amrut Prakashan, Aurangabad, 1998) 674. |
|56.||S.K. Jain. Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany, (Deep Publications, New Delhi, 1991) 105. |
|57.||H.S. Puri. Aphrodisiacs in India. Indian Drugs. 9: 11-14 (1976). |
|58.||H.H. Haines. The Botany of Bihar & Orissa, reprint edition, Vol II, (Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 1961) 704. |
|59.||M.B. Yelne, G.B. Borkar and P.C. Sharma. Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Bibliography of CCRAS Contributions (1969-1997), (Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi, 1999). |
|60.||K.K. Singh and P. Anand. Indigenous herbal remedies among the Tharus of Gonda Distt., UP. Fourth International Conference on Ethnobiology, NBRI, Lucknow, 17-21 Nov., 1994, 287. |
|61.||N. Rajaram. Medicinal plants used to cure various ailments in the rural areas of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu. Adv. Plant Sc. 19:197-202 (2006). |
|62.||K.C. Chuneker and G.S. Pandey. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu (Indian Materia Medica) of Sri Bhavamisra, (Bharati Academy, Varanasi, 2002)417. |
|63.||Medicinal Plants Bibliography of CSIR contributions (1950-1987), (Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, 1988) 25, 39. |
|64.||Chatterjee and S.C. Pakrashi. The Treatise on Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol V, (NISCOM, CSIR, New Delhi, 1997) 55. |
|65.||V.K. Singh, Z.A. Ali and S.T.H. Zaidi. Ethnomedicinal uses of Plants from Gonda District forests of Uttar Pradesh, India. Fitoterapia. LXVII: 129-39 (1996). |
|66.||Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol 3, (Orient Longman, New Delhi, 1995) 191. |
|67.||The Wealth of India, Raw Material, (CSIR, New Delhi, 1959) 148. |
|68.||G. Watt. A Dictionary of Economic Products of India, Vol IV, (Cosmo Publications, New Delhi, 1972) 316. |
|69.||R.K. Sharma and A. Kar. Jeevaniya Greeshmal 1, (Lucknow, 1990) 41. |
|70.||S.K. Samanta. Modulation of male infertility by Ayurvedic drugs, (International Seminar on Traditional Medicine, Calcutta, 1992) 127. |
|71.||S. Venkitraman and N. Radhakrishna. Antifungal activity of Asteracantha longifolia. Ind. J. Pharmacol. 4: 148 (1972). |
|72.||Kar, B.K. Choudhary and N.B. Bandyopdhyay. Important mineral contents and medicinal properties of M. oleifera and H. spinosa. Sachitra Ayurveda. 50: 543-49 (1998). |
|73.||M.A. Ali. Chemical investigation on the seeds of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders.Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 10: 82-83 (1967). |
|74.||E.W. Eckey. Vegetable Oils and Fats, (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1954) 749. |
|75.||V.V. Parashar and H. Singh. A sterol from seeds of Asteracantha longfolia Nees. Ind. J. Pharm. 27: 118-19 (1965). |
|76.||V.V. Parashar and H. Singh. Investigation of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Ind. J. Pharm. 27: 109-13 (1965). |
|77.||N.L. Phalnikar, K.S. Nargund and D.D. Kanga. Chemical investigation of the seeds of Hygrophila spinosa. J. Univ Bombay. 4:146-52 (1935). |
|78.||C. Quassim and N.L. Dutta. Chemical Investigation of Asteracantha long folia Nees. J. Ind. Chem. Soc. 44: 82-83 (1967). |
|79.||P. Balraj and S. Nagarajan. Apigenin 7-O-glucuronide from the flowers of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Indian Drugs. 19: 150-52 (1982). |
|80.||Dewanji, S. Chanda, L. Si, S. Barik and S. Maiti. Extractability and nutritional value of leaf protein from tropical aquatic plants. Plant food Hum. Nutr. 50: 349-57 (1997). |
|81.||R.P. Samy. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from India. Fitoterapia. 76: 697-99 (2005). |
|82.||R.P. Rastogi and B.N. Mehrotra. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, reprint edition, Vol I, (Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, 1993) 220. |
|83.||R.P. Rastogi and B.N. Mehrotra. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, reprint edition, Vol II, (Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, 1993) 381. |
|84.||K.C. Bose. Pharmacopoeia Indica, (The Book Company, Calcutta, 1932) 111. |
|85.||T.N. Misra, R.S. Singh, S.C. Sharma, H.S. Pandey and R.P. Pandey. Two new compounds from Asteracantha longifolia. Ind. J. Chem. 39B: 480-82 (2000). |
|86.||Q.N. Haq and M.N. Nabi. Studies on oil from the seeds of Hygrophila spinosa. Bang. J. Sc. Ind. Res. 13: 29-32 (1978). |
|87.||U.K. Mazumder and A. Sengupta. Triglyceride composition of Hygrophila spinosa seed oil. Ind. J. Pharm. Sc. 40: 119-20 (1978). |
|88.||N.N. Godbole, B.G. Gunde and P.D. Srivastava. An investigation of oil from seeds of Hygrophila spinosa. Oil Soap (Chicago). 18: 206-07 (1941). |
|89.||U.K. Mazumdar, M. Gupta and S. Maiti. Chemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of Hygrophila spinosa Root. Ind. J. Pharm. Sc. 61: 181-83 (1999). |
|90.||T.N. Misra, R.S. Singh, H.S. Pandey, B.K. Singh and R.P. Pandey. Constituents of Asteracantha longifolia. Fitoterapia. 72: 194-96 (2001). |
|91.||Phytochemical Investigation of Certain Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda, (Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Govt. of India, New Delhi, 1990) 77. |
|92.||K.M. Wad Kiranis. Indian Materia Medica, (Popular Prakashan Private Ltd., Bombay, 2002) 63. |
|93.||D.R. Gupta, R. Bhushan, R.P. Dhiman and B. Ahmed. Chemical examination of Asteracantha longifolia. J. Nat. Prod. 46: 938 (1983). |
|94.||S. Shailajan and S. Abhishek. A comparative evaluation of phytochemical fingerprint of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Using HPTLC. Asian J. Plant Sc. 7: 611-14 (2008). |
|95.||M. Saleem, K. Mee-Hyang, Y. Jung-Mi, M.A. Vaqar and K. Naghma. A novel dietary triterpene lupeol induces fas-mediated apoptotic death of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells and inhibits tumour growth in a xenograft model. Cancer Research. 65: 11203-13 (2005). |
|96.||R.D. Tiwari, K.C. Srivastava and P.D. Sattsangi. Examination of the fixed oil from the seeds of Hygrophila spinosa. Ind. J. Appl. Chem. 30: 58-59 (1967). |
|97.||B. Sahoo and P. Acharya. Comparative studies on nutritional status of leafy vegetables. Crop Research (Hisar). 30: 406-08 (2005). |
|98.||Q.N. Haq, M. Nizamuddin and J. Rahman. Studies on water soluble polysaccharide from the seeds of Hygrophila spinosa. Bang. J. Sc. Ind. Res. 20: 59-63 (1985). |
|99.||S.R. Surange and V.A. Phatak. Pharmacognostic studies on root of Hygrophila auriculata Heine. J. Univ. Poona Sci. Tech. 54: 211-16 (1981). |
|100.||R.J. Thanki and K.A. Thaker. Studies on amino acid composition of the seeds of the plants A. longifolia and C. trilocularies. J. Institute Chemists (India). 52: 23-24 (1980). |
|101.||S.M. Hussein Ayoub and A.I. Babiker. Screening of plants used in Sudan folk medicine for anticancer activity. Fitoterapia. LV: 209-12 (1984). |
|102.||U.K. Mazumdar, M. Gupta, S. Maiti and D. Mukherjee. Antitumor activity of Hygrophila spinosa on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and sarcoma-180 induced mice. Ind. J. Expt. Biol. 35: 473-77 (1997). |
|103.||S.P. Pattanayak and P. Sunita. Antitumor potency and toxicology of an Indian Ayurvedic plant, Hygrophila spinosa. Pharmacologyonline. 2: 361-71 (2008). |
|104.||A.A. Egami, A.Z.A.L. Magboul, M.E.A. Omer and M.S.E.L. Tohami. Sudanese Plants used in folkloric medicine: Screening for antibacterial activity. Fitoterapia. LXIX: 369-73 (1998). |
|105.||U.K. Mazumdar, M. Gupta and S. Maiti. Chemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of Hygrophila spinosa Root. Ind. J. Pharm. Sc. 61: 181-83 (1999). |
|106.||C.B. Thakur, V.K. Dixit and S. Saraf. Hepatoprotective activity of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Indian Drugs. 28: 400-02 (1991). |
|107.||S.K. Sen, N.B. Pradhan and L.M. Behera. Ethnomedicinal plants used against jaundice at Bargarh district in Orissa (India). Adv. Plant Sc. 13: 329-30 (2000). |
|108.||Singh and S.S. Handa. Hepatoprotective activity of Apium graveolens and Hygrophila auriculata against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 49: 119-26 (1995). |
|109.||P. Shanmugasundaram and S. Venkataraman. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine Acanthaceae root extract. J. Ethnopharmacol. 104: 124-28 (2006). |
|110.||K. Usha, G. Mary Kasturi and P. Hemalatha. Hepatoprotective effect of Hygrophila spinosa and Cassia occidentalis on carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in experimental rats. Ind. J. Clin. Biochem. 22: 132-35 (2007). |
|111.||P. Shanmugasundaram and S. Venkataraman. Antinociceptive activity of Hygrophila auriculata (Schum) Heine. Afr. J. Trad. Comp. Alt. Med. 2: 62-69 (2005). |
|112.||Patra, S. Jha, P.N. Murthy, D. Roy and A.N. Sahu. Analgesic and antimotility activities of leaves of hygrophilia spinosa T. Anders. Pharmacologyonline. 2: 821-28 (2008). |
|113.||U.K. Mazumdar, M. Gupta and S. Maiti. Effect of petroleum ether extract from Hygrophila spinosa on hematological parameters and hepatorenal functions in mice. Ind. J. Expt. Biol. 34: 1201-03 (1996). |
|114.||Gomes, M. Das and S.C. Dasgupta. Haematinic effect of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anderson on experimental rodents. Ind. J. Expt. Biol. 39: 381-82 (2001). |
|115.||R.S. Pawar, A.P. Jain, S. Kashaw and A. Singhai. Effect of Asteracantha longifolia on haematological parameters in rats. Ind. J. Pharmacol. 38: 285-86 (2006). |
|116.||S.K. Mitra, T.S. Muralidhar and D.R.B. Rao. Experimental assessment of relative efficacy of drugs of herbal origin on sexual performance and hormone levels in alcohol exposed and normal rats. Phytother. Res. 10: 296-99 (1996). |
|117.||M. Vijayakumar, R. Govindarajan, G.M.M. Rao, C.V. Rao, A. Shrwaikar, S. Mehrotra and P. Pushpagadan. Action of Hygrophila auriculata against streptozotocin induced oxidative stress. J. Ethnopharmacol. 104: 356-61 (2006). |
|118.||A.S.K. Haque, D. Sen, U.B. Bagchi, M.M. Chakrabarty and S. Mukherjee. Evaluation of total antioxidant capacity of some vegetables, spices and tea. J. Food Sc. Tech. 43: 467-69 (2006). |
|119.||S. Surveswaran, Y.Z. Cai, H. Corke and M. Sun. Systematic evaluation of natural phenolic antioxidants from 133 Indian medicinal plants. Food Chemistry. 102: 938-53 (2007). |
|120.||N. Dasgupta and B. De. Antioxidant activity of some leafy vegetables of India: A comparative study. Food Chemistry. 101: 471-74 (2007). |
|121.||M.R. Fernando, S.M.D.N. Ickramasinghe and M.I. Thabrew. Extra pancreatic actions of Hygrophila longifolia. Pharmaceutical Biology. 36: 352-56 (1998). |
|122.||G.S. Kumari and G.Y. Iyer. Preliminary studies on the diuretic effects of Hygrophila spinosa and Tribulus terrestris. Ind. J. Med. Res. 55: 714-16 (1967). |
|123.||C.S. Elisandra and A.D. Diones. Constituents of Moquinia Kingii. Braz. J. Pharm. Sc. 41: 63-66 (2005). |
|124.||T. Geetha and P. Varalakshmi. Effect of lupeol and lupeol linoleate on lysosomal enzymes and collagen in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Acta. Phy. Hung. 1999; 77: 197-207. |
|125.||R. Anton, Y. Jiang, B. Weniger, J.P. Beck and L. Rivier. Pharmacognosy of Mimosa tenuiflora (willd.) poiret. J. Ethanopharmacol. 38: 145-52 (1993). |
|126.||R.K. Chatterjee, N. Fatma, P. Kalpnamurthy, P. Sinha, D.K. Kulshrestha and B.N. Dhawan. Macrofilaricidal activity of the stem bark of Streblus asper and its major active constituents. Drug Dev. Res. 26: 67-68 (1992). |
|127.||S. Kumar, K. Ziereis, W. Wiegrebe and K. Muller. Medicinal plants from Nepal: evaluation as inhibitors of leukotriene biosynthesis. J. Ethnopharmacol. 70: 191-95 (2000). |
|128.||R. Ravi, R. Binokingsley, S. Satheshkumar, T.N.K. Suryaprakash, R. Hemalatha and R. Venkatnarayan. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hygrophila auriculata. IUPAC International Conference on Biodiversity and Natural Products Chemistry and Medicinal Applications, New Delhi, 26-31 Jan., 2004, 278. |
|129.||S.B. Maiti, M. Gupta and U.K. Mazumder. Antineoplastic effect of the root extract of Hygrophila spinosa. International Conference on Current Progress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research, Calcutta, India, 30 Dec.1994-1 Jan. 1995, 1995, 135-136. |
|130.||D.P. Rastogi, J.P. Singh, P.S. Chakrabarty, R.D. Jayant and Sunil Kumar. Efficacy of Homoeopathic drugs on skin disorders. National Seminar on the Use of Traditional Medicines in Skin Care, CIMAP, Lucknow, 25-26 Nov., 1994, 15. |
|131.||N. Balakrishnan. A miraculous cure of Hairy Cell Leukemia in splenectomized case by an Indian medicine. 49th International Congress on Homoeopathic Medicine League, New Delhi, 3-7 March, 1995, 285-287. |
|132.||Jamil, M. Shahid, M.M.H. Khan and M. Ashraf. Screening of some medicinal plants for isolation of antifungal proteins and peptides. Pak. J. Bot. 39: 211-21 (2007). |
|133.||S. Shailajan, N. Chandra, R.T. Sane and S. Menon. Effect of Asteracantha longifolis Nees. Against galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. Toxicol. Int. 14: 7-13 (2007). |
|134.||S. Sultana, S. Ahmed, S. Sharma and N. Khan. Asteracantha longifolia suppresses oxidant-induced tissue injury and proliferation in rat liver. Asia Pacific J. Pharmacol. 16: 123-30 (2006). |
[Table 1], [Table 2]
|This article has been cited by|
||Simple phytosynthesis and humidity sensing application of biocomposite doped nanocrystalline magnesium oxide
| ||Aruldoss, U. and Vijaya, J.J. and Umapathy, M.J. and Kennedy, L.J. |
| ||Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 2013; 13(4): 3027-3034 |
||Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders seeds based biomineral doped cobalt oxide: Synthesis, characterization and its application to humidity sensing
| ||Aruldoss, U. and Judith Vijaya, J. and Umapathy, M.J. and John Kennedy, L. |
| ||Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2013; 547: 11-17 |
||Treatment of diarrhoea in rural African communities: An overview of measures to maximise the medicinal potentials of indigenous plants
| ||Njume, C. and Goduka, N.I. |
| ||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(11): 3911-3933 |
||H. spinosa T. Anders ameliorates diabetic neuropathy in Wistar albino rats
| ||Thorve, V.S. and Kshirsagar, A.D. and Vyawahare, N.S. and Thakurdesai, P.A. and Bhandare, A.M. |
| ||Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 2012; 9(1) |
||Isolation and bioactivity evaluation of two metabolites from the methanolic extract of Oroxylum indicum stem bark
| ||Rajkumar, V. and Guha, G. and Kumar, R.A. |
| ||Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(1 SUPPL.): S7-S11 |
||Therapeutic plants of ayurveda; a review on anticancer
| ||Kumar, S. and Jawaid, T. and Dubey, S.D. |
| ||Pharmacognosy Journal. 2011; 3(23): 1-11 |
|| Phytochemical analysis of Acanthus ilicifolius and Avicennia officinalis by GC-MS
| ||Ganesh, S., Vennila, J.J. |
| ||Research Journal of Phytochemistry. 2011; 5(1): 60-65 |