|Year : 2009 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 307-319
Chemistry and biological activities of the genus Dalbergia - A review
Neeru Vasudeva1, Manisha Vats2, SK Sharma1, Satish Sardana2
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambeshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonepat-131001, India
|Date of Web Publication||24-Feb-2010|
Department of Pharmacognosy, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonepat-131001
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Dalbergia is a genus of trees, shrubs and woody climbers widely distributed in tropical and sub- tropical regions. It possesses immense traditional application. Various species are widely used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-spermicidal, larvicidal and mosquito repellant in the traditional system of medicines. Chemical investigation has resulted in characterization and isolation of various phytoconstituents. This review is compilation of chemical composition and biological activities of the various species of the genus Dalbergia.
Keywords: Biological activities, Dalbergia spp., phytoconstituents, traditional uses
|How to cite this article:|
Vasudeva N, Vats M, Sharma S K, Sardana S. Chemistry and biological activities of the genus Dalbergia - A review. Phcog Rev 2009;3:307-19
|How to cite this URL:|
Vasudeva N, Vats M, Sharma S K, Sardana S. Chemistry and biological activities of the genus Dalbergia - A review. Phcog Rev [serial online] 2009 [cited 2018 Jun 19];3:307-19. Available from: http://www.phcogrev.com/text.asp?2009/3/6/307/59529
| Introduction|| |
The genus consists of 300 species and about 25 species occur in India. Many species of Dalbergia are important timber trees, valued for their decorative and often fragrant wood, rich in aromatic oils , . Traditionally various species are reported to be used as aphrodisiac, abortifacient, expectorant, anthelmentic, antipyretic, appetizer, allays thirst, vomiting, burning sensation, cures skin diseases, ulcers, diseases of the blood, reduces obesity, used in leucoderma, dyspepsia, dysentery, for diseases of the eye and nose, syphilis, stomach troubles, leprosy, leucoderma, scabies and ringworm , . The present paper is compilation of the phytoconstituents that have been identified in this genus and the traditional and reported biological activities.
Phytoconstituents identified in the genus dalbergia.
A number of phytoconstituents namely flavonoids, isoflavonoids, glycosides, steroids, quinines etc., have been isolated from the various species of the genus. Phytoconstituents isolated from the genus Dalbergia are tabulated in the [Table 1].
Dalbergia genus possesses immense traditional application. So far, a few species have been screened for their biological activity and experimental results have shown a wide spectrum of such effects, the important ones are as follows:
Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity
Alcoholic extract of D. sisso leaves have shown peripheral analgesic activity and central analgesic activity in various models viz; acetic acid induced writhings, hot plate method, tail-clip test in mice and Randoll-selitto assay. Similar activity has also been reported in ethanolic extract of D. lanceolata bark. The alcoholic extract of D. sisso leaves extract also showed antipyretic activity in Brewers yeast induced pyrexia in rats  . The ethanolic extract of D. sisso leaves significantly inhibited carragenin, kaolin, and nystatin induced paw edema as well as the weight of granuloma induced by the cotton pellet. It also inhibited dye leakage in acetic acid -induced vascular permeability test in mice  . Biochanin- A (5,7dihyddroxy -4-methoxy isoflavone) isolated from flowers of D. sissoids have shown to possess anti -inflammatory activity against PGE, bradykinin, 5-HT and histamine induced rat hind paw odema in dose dependent manner  .
The petroleum ether, alcohol and aqueous extracts of D. lanceolaria had been found effective against arthritis when tested against formaldehyde-induced arthritis in young growing albino rats. The effects of extracts were comparable with cortisone, a standard anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic drug  .
Citric acid extract of bark of D. melanoxylon have shown significant antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia More Details coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella More Details typhimurium and Yersinia More Details pestis) and gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus). The plant has potential antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger  .
The decoction of dried leaves of D. sisso possesses antidiarrhoeal activity. The ethanolic extract of the bark of D. lanceolaria have shown activity against castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea in albino mice  .
The lyophilized aqueous extract (LAE) of D. monetaria have shown a dose dependant inhibition of gastric lesions induced by indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligature and hypothermic- restraint stress on oral administration  .
Larvicidal and mosquito repellant activity
The oil extracted from wood scrapings of D. sisso has shown dose dependent larvicidal activity, growth inhibiter and repellant action against Anopheles stephensi, Ades aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus 
The extracts and formononetin an isoflavone from the bark of D. frutescans have shown significant activity against Giardia intestinalis with an IC 50 value of 30ng/ml (approx. 0.1 μm) as compared to the value for metronidazole, the current drug of choice of 100 ng/ml (approx. 0.6 μm)  .
The flavanoids isolated from air dried powdered heartwood of D. louvelli showed antiplasmodial activity with IC 50 values ranging from 5.8 to 8.7 um  .
Triterpenoid glycosides, DSS, isolated from the root of D.saxatilis have shown antifertility activity in female wistar rats at the dose rate of 200mg/kg body weigtt at the premating period, inhibiting the conception in 71.4% of the treated animals. Fertility index was 107.82 compared to 373.5 for control rats  .
Butein isolated from D. odorifera have shown to inhibit the iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate in concentration dependant manner with an IC 50 value 3.3±0.4μm. It was as potent as α-tocopherol in reducing the stable free radical diphenyl-2-picarylhydryl (DPPH) with an IC 0.200 value 9.2±1.8 μm. It also inhibited the activity of xanthine oxidase with IC 50 value 5.9±0.3μm. Butein scavenged the peroxyl radical derived from 2,2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in aqueous phase. Butein have also shown to inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of human lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) in a concentration dependent manner. Butein caused endothelium dependant relaxation of rat aorta, precontracted with phenylephrine  .
Cancer chemopreventive activity
Ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of the D. cultrate Grati and D. nigrescens Kurz were found to exhibit a significant antitumor promoting activity on TPA (12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13acetase, EBV-EA (Epstein Barr virus early antigen) and TPAinduced EBV-EA activation  .
| Conclusion|| |
The genus Dalbergia though known for its timber value also possesses significant medicinal properties. Most of the work carried out on the various species is on the extracts of the different parts. This review will help the future researchers to further explore the medicinal potential of the phytoconstituents of this genus.
| References|| |
|1.||Wealth of Indian Raw Materials. Publication and information directorate, Vol 2, CSIR, New Delhi, 214-230 (1972) |
|2.||R.N. Chopra, S.L. Nyer, I.C. Chopra. Supplement to the glossavy of indian medicinal plants, CSIR, New Delhi, 90 (1980) |
|3.||K. R. Kirtikar, B. D. Basu. Indian medicinal plants, Vol 3: Lalitmohan Basu Parkashan, Allahabad 275-279 (1991) |
|4.||K.M. Nadkarni. Indian material medica third edition, Vol 1, Bombay, Popular book depot, 432 (1954) |
|5.||H. Chawla, S.S. Chibber, T.R. Seshadri. Volubilin, a new isoflavone-cglycoside from Dalbergia volubilis flowers Phytochemistry. 13: 2301-2304 (1974) |
|6.||S. Yahara, T. Ogata, R. Saijo, R. Konishi, J. Yamahara, K. Miyahara, T. Nohara. Isoflavan and related compounds from Dalbergia odorifera. Ind Chem Pharm Bull, 37 (4): 979-987 (1989) |
|7.||N. Beldjoudi, L. Mambu, M. Labaied, P. Grellier, D. Ramanitrahasimbola, P. Rasoanaivo, M.T. Martin, F. Frappier. Flavanoids from Dalbergia louvelii and their antiplasmodial activity J Nat Prod. 66:1447-1450 (2003) |
|8.||J.R. Rao, M.A. Ahamed. Phytochemical Study of Dalbergia paniculata leaves Fitoterapia. 62(2): 187 (1992) |
|9.||I. Jurd, K. Stevens, Manners. Phenolic and quinoidal constituents of Dalbergia retusa. Tetrahedron Letters, 21:2149-2152 (1972) |
|10.||C. Ito, M. Itoigawa, T. Kanematsu, N. Ruangrungsi, H. Higashihara, H. Tokuda, H. Nishino, H. Furukawa. New Cinnamylphenols from Dalbergia species with cancer chemopreventive activity. J Nat Prod. 66:1574-1577 (2003) |
|11.||D. Adinaraya, J. R. Rao. Isoflavanoid glycoside of Dalbergia paniculata the constitutions of dalpanitin and dalpatin. Tetrahedron. 28: 5377-5384 (1972) |
|12.||K. Kurosawa, W.D.Ollis, I.O. Sutherlsnd , O.R. Gottlieb. Absolute configuration of isoflavans. Phytochemistry. 17: 1423-1426 (1978) |
|13.||R. Gandhidasan, N.S. Nagarangan, S. Neelakantan, P.V. Raman. Dalspinin & dalspinosin, two new isoflavone from Dalbergia spinosa roots. Ind J Chem 21B: 385-386 (1982) |
|14.||A. Banerjee, V.V.S. Murti, T.R. Seshadri, R.S. Thakur. Chemical components of flowers of Dalbergia sissoo. Isolation of 7- methyl tectorigenin, a new isoflavone Ind J Chem. 1: 25-27 (1963) |
|15.||D. Adinaraya, J. R. Rao. Isoflavanoid glycoside of Dalbergia paniculata. Ind J Chem., 13: 425-426 (1975) |
|16.||P. Bhatt, R. Dayal. Stipulin, A prenylated chalcone from Dalbergia stipulacea, Phytochemistry.31 (2): 719-721 (1992) |
|17.||H. M. Chwala, R.S. Mittal. 7, 3'-dihydroxy-5-4'dimethoxy-4-phenyl coumarin (Seshadrin), a new neoflvanoid from Dalbergia Volubilis. Ind J Chem. 23B: 375-376 (1984) |
|18.||H. Chawla, S.S. Chibber, T.R. Seshadri. Volubilin, a new isoflavone-Cglycoside from Dalbergia volubilis flowers Phytochemistry. 13: 2301-2304 (1974) |
|19.||B.J. Donnelly, D.M.X. Donnelly, A.M. O'Sullivan. Dalbergia species-VI, The occurance of melannein in the genus Dalbergia. Tetrahedron. 24: 26172622 (1967) |
|20.||B.J. Donnelly, D.M.X. Donnelly, A.M. O'Sullivan, J.P. Prendergast. Dalbergia species-VIII, The isolation and structure of melanoxin, a new dihydrobenzofuran fron Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill And Perr (Leguminoseae). Tetrahedron. 25: 4409-4414 (1969) |
|21.||N. Muangnoicharoen, A.W. Frahm. Neoflavlanoids of Dalbergia parviflora, Phytochemistry. 21(3): 767-772 (1982) |
|22.||H. Chawla, S.S. Chibber, T.R. Seshadri. Isovolubilin, a new isoflavoneC-rhamnoside from Dalbergia volubilis flowers. Ind J Chem. 13: 444-446 (1975) |
|23.||H. Chawla, S.S. Chibber, T.R. Seshadri. Volubilinin, a new isoflavoneC-glycoside from Dalbergia volubilis flowers. Phytochemistry.15: 235-237 (1976) |
|24.||A. Malhotra, V.V.S. Murti, T.R. Seshadri. Lanceolarin, a new isoflavone glycosude of Dalbergia lanceolaria.Phytochemistry. 405-409 (1966) |
|25.||S.S. Chibber, U. Khera. Dalbinol- a new 12a-hydroxyrotenoid from Dalbergia latifolia seeds. Phytochemistry .17:142-143 (1978) |
|26.||A. Banerjee, V.V.S. Murti, T.R. Seshadri. Isolation of Sissonin, a new isoflavone glycoside from leaves of D. sisso. Ind J Chem. 4(2): 70-72 (1966) |
|27.||N.S. Nagaranjan, R.P. Rao, C.N. Manoj, M.G. Sethuraman. Spectral assignment and reference data, Piperodone derivatives from Dalbergia sympathetica Magnetic resonance in chemistry. 43: 264-265 (2005) |
|28.||A. Sharma, S.S. Chibber, H.M. Chawala. Isocaviudin, a new isoflavone glucoside isolated from Dalbergia sisso. Ind J Chem. 19B: 237-238 (1980) |
|29.||A. Sharma, S.S. Chibber, H.M. Chawala. Isocaviunin 7gentioisobioside, a new isoflavone glycoside from Dalbergia sissoo. Phytochemistry. 19(4): 715 (1980) |
|30.||J. Svasta, C. Srisomsap, S. Techasakul, R. Surarit. Dalcochinin-8'--O-β-Dglucoside and its -β-glucosidase enzyme from Dalbergia cochinensis Phytochemistry. 59: 459-463 (1999) |
|31.||K.M. Rajulu, J.R. Rao. Caviunin-7-O-rhamnoglucoside from Dalbergia paniculata root. Phytochemistry.19: 1563(1980): |
|32.||V Narayanan, TR Seshadri: Paniculatin, a new isoflavone-di-c-glucoside of Dalbergia paniculata bark Ind J of Chem 9: 14-16 (1971) |
|33.||M.R. Parthasarathy, T.R. Seshadri, R.S. Varma. New isoflavonoid glycosides from Dalbergia paniculata. Phytochemistry.15: 1025-1027 (1976) |
|34.||R. Gandhidasan, K. Hariramakrishanan, S. Neelakantan, P.V. Raman. Dalspinosin 7-o-/-d-glucopyranoside, a new isoflavone glycoside from Dalbergia spinosa Roxb. Ind J Chem. 27B: 693 (1988) |
|35.||J.R. Rao, S.R. Rao. Dalpaniculin, a C- glycosylisoflavone from Dalbergia paniculata seeds. Phytochemistry. 30(2): 715-716 (1991) |
|36.||S. Yahara, S. Emura, H. Feng, T. Nohara. Studies on constituents of the bark of Dalbergia hupeana. Chem Pharm Bull. 37(8): 2136-2138 |
|37.||M.S.Y. Khan, K. Javed. Chemistry and pharmacology of Dalbergia species. Indian Drugs.34 (7): 373-82 (1997) |
|38.||C. Ito, M. Itoigawa, T. Kanematsu, N. Ruangrungsi, H. Higashihara, H. Tokuda, H. Nishino, H. Furukawa. New Cinnamylphenols from Dalbergia species with cancer chemopreventive activity. J Nat Prod. 66:1574-1577 (2003) |
|39.||M. Gregson, W.D. Ollis, I.O. Sutherlsnd, O.R. Gottlieb, T. Magalhaes. Violstyrene and iso violstyrene, cinnamylphenols from Dalbergia Miscolobium. Phytochemist9y. 17:1375-1377 (1978) |
|40.||Y. Goda, M. Katayama, K. Ichikawa, M. Shibuya. Inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis from Dalbergia odorifera. Chem Phar Bull. 33(12): 5606-5609 (1985) |
|41.||E. Blanca Barraganhuerta, Peralta-Cruz Javier. Neocandenatone, an isoflavan-cinnamylphenol quinine methide pigment from Dalbergia congestiflora. Phytochemistry . 65: 925-928 (2004) [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT] |
|42.||B.J. Donnelly, D.M.X. Donnelly, C.B. Sharkey. Dalbergia species-II Isolation of (S)-dalbergione from Dalbergia baroni Baker. Phytochemistry. 4: 337-340 (1965) |
|43.||V.K. Ahluwalia, T.R. Seshadri. Dalberginone from heartwood of Dalbergia sisso Current Sci .32 (10): 455(1963) |
|44.||P. Ravi, V. Narayanan, P.V. Raman. A novel quinone fron Dalbergia sissoides Grah. Ind J Chem.28B:778-779 (1989) |
|45.||N. Muangniocharoen, A.G. Frahm. Arylbenzofurans from Dalbergia parviflora. Phytochemistry. 20: 291-293 (1981) |
|46.||H.M. Chawala, R.S. Mittal, D. Krastogi. Voludal, a new aldehydic compound from Dalbergia volubilis. Ind J Chem. 23(B): 175-176(1984) |
|47.||J.R. Rao, M.A. Ahamed. Phytochemical Study of Dalbergia paniculata leaves Fitoterapia. 62(2): 187 (1992) |
|48.||A. V. Misar, M. Kale, M. Joshi, A.M. Mujbumder. Analgesic activity of Dalbergia lanceolaria bark extract in swiss albino mice. Pharm Biol. 43: 723725 (2005) |
|49.||S.W. Hajare, S. Chandra, J. Sharma, S.K Tondon, J. Lal, A.J. Telanj. Anti-Inflammatory activity of Dalbergia sisso leaves. Fitoterapia. 72:131139 (2001) |
|50.||S. Kaviswami, T. Vetrichelvan, N.S. Nagaranjan. Possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of biochanin-a isolated from Dalbergia sissoides. Indian Drugs. 39(3): 161-162 (2002) |
|51.||R.H. Singh, G.N. Chaturvedi. Further studies on the antiarthritic effect of an indigenous drug Dalbergia lanceolaria. Ind J Med Res .54 (4): 363367(1966) |
|52.||M. Gundidga, N. Gaza. Antimicrobial activity Of Dalbergia melanoxylon extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 40: 127-130 (1993) |
|53.||A.M .Mujumdar, A.V. Misar, A.S. Upadhye. Antidiarrhoel activity of ethanol extract of the bark of Dalbergia lanceolaria. J Ethnopharmacol. 102:213-216 (2005) |
|54.||A.R.M. Brito Souza, R.H.S. Cota, D.S. Nunes. Gastric antiulcerogenic effects of Dalbergia monetaria L in Rats Phytotherapy Research . 11: 31431(1997) |
|55.||M.A. Ansari, R.K. Razdan, M. Tandon, P. Vasudeva. Larvicidal and reppellant actions of Dalbergis sisso Roxb. (Family: Leguminasae) oil against mosquitoes. Bioresource Tech. 73(3): 207-211 |
|56.||I.A. Khan, M.A. Avery, C.L. Burandt, J.R. Mikell, T.E. Nash, A. Azadegan, L.A. Walker. Antigiardial activity of isoflavones from Dalbergia frutescens bark. J Nat Prod. 63:1414-1416 (2000) |
|57.||N. Beldjoudi, L. Mambu, M. Labaied, P. Grellier, D. Ramanitrahasimbola, P. Rasoanaivo, M T. Martin, F. Frappier. Flavanoids from Dalbergia louvelii and their antiplasmodial activity. J Nat Prod .66:1447-1450 (2003) |
|58.||C.N. Ucendu, B.F. Leek.Uterine Muscle Contractant from the root of Dalbergia sisso Fitoterapia. 70: 50-53 (1999) |
|59.||Z.J. Cheng, S.C. Kuo, S. Chan, F.N. Kou, C.M. Teng. Antioxidant properties of butein isolated from Dalbergia odorifera. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1392: 291-299 (1998) |
|This article has been cited by|
||Inhibitory constituents of the heartwood of Dalbergia odorifera on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages
| ||Lee, C. and Lee, J.W. and Jin, Q. and Jang, D.S. and Lee, S.-J. and Lee, D. and Hong, J.T. and Kim, Y. and Lee, M.K. and Hwang, B.Y. |
| ||Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2013; 23(14): 4263-4266 |
||Endemic Malagasy Dalbergia species inhibit quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1
| ||Rasamiravaka, T. and Jedrzejowski, A. and Kiendrebeogo, M. and Rajaonson, S. and Randriamampionona, D. and Rabemanantsoa, C. and Andriantsimahavandy, A. and Rasamindrakotroka, A. and Duez, P. and Jaziri, M.E. and Vandeputte, O.M. |
| ||Microbiology (United Kingdom). 2013; 159(PART 5): 924-938 |
||Efficacy of some natural compounds as antifungal agents
| ||Vengurlekar, S. and Sharma, R. and Trivedi, P. |
| ||Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2012; 6(12): 91-99 |
||Investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaves of Dalbergia paniculata (Roxb)
| ||Ganga, R.B. and Madhu, K.P. and Vijaya, R.A.D. |
| ||Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012; 5(6): 455-458 |