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Year : 2009  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 307-319 Table of Contents     

Chemistry and biological activities of the genus Dalbergia - A review

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambeshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonepat-131001, India

Date of Web Publication24-Feb-2010

Correspondence Address:
Manisha Vats
Department of Pharmacognosy, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonepat-131001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Dalbergia is a genus of trees, shrubs and woody climbers widely distributed in tropical and sub- tropical regions. It possesses immense traditional application. Various species are widely used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, anti­diarrheal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-spermicidal, larvicidal and mosquito repellant in the traditional system of medicines. Chemical investigation has resulted in characterization and isolation of various phytoconstituents. This review is compilation of chemical composition and biological activities of the various species of the genus Dalbergia.

Keywords: Biological activities, Dalbergia spp., phytoconstituents, traditional uses

How to cite this article:
Vasudeva N, Vats M, Sharma S K, Sardana S. Chemistry and biological activities of the genus Dalbergia - A review. Phcog Rev 2009;3:307-19

How to cite this URL:
Vasudeva N, Vats M, Sharma S K, Sardana S. Chemistry and biological activities of the genus Dalbergia - A review. Phcog Rev [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 May 24];3:307-19. Available from: http://www.phcogrev.com/text.asp?2009/3/6/307/59529

  Introduction Top

The genus consists of 300 species and about 25 species occur in India. Many species of Dalbergia are important timber trees, valued for their decorative and often fragrant wood, rich in aromatic oils [1],[2] . Traditionally various species are reported to be used as aphrodisiac, abortifacient, expectorant, anthelmentic, antipyretic, appetizer, allays thirst, vomiting, burning sensation, cures skin diseases, ulcers, diseases of the blood, reduces obesity, used in leucoderma, dyspepsia, dysentery, for diseases of the eye and nose, syphilis, stomach troubles, leprosy, leucoderma, scabies and ringworm [3],[4] . The present paper is compilation of the phytoconstituents that have been identified in this genus and the traditional and reported biological activities.

Phytoconstituents identified in the genus dalbergia.

A number of phytoconstituents namely flavonoids, isoflavonoids, glycosides, steroids, quinines etc., have been isolated from the various species of the genus. Phytoconstituents isolated from the genus Dalbergia are tabulated in the [Table 1].

Biological activities

Dalbergia genus possesses immense traditional application. So far, a few species have been screened for their biological activity and experimental results have shown a wide spectrum of such effects, the important ones are as follows:

Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity

Alcoholic extract of D. sisso leaves have shown peripheral analgesic activity and central analgesic activity in various models viz; acetic acid induced writhings, hot plate method, tail-clip test in mice and Randoll-selitto assay. Similar activity has also been reported in ethanolic extract of D. lanceolata bark. The alcoholic extract of D. sisso leaves extract also showed antipyretic activity in Brewers yeast induced pyrexia in rats [48] . The ethanolic extract of D. sisso leaves significantly inhibited carragenin, kaolin, and nystatin induced paw edema as well as the weight of granuloma induced by the cotton pellet. It also inhibited dye leakage in acetic acid -induced vascular permeability test in mice [49] . Biochanin- A (5,7­dihyddroxy -4-methoxy isoflavone) isolated from flowers of D. sissoids have shown to possess anti -inflammatory activity against PGE, bradykinin, 5-HT and histamine induced rat hind paw odema in dose dependent manner [50] .

Antiartitic activity

The petroleum ether, alcohol and aqueous extracts of D. lanceolaria had been found effective against arthritis when tested against formaldehyde-induced arthritis in young growing albino rats. The effects of extracts were comparable with cortisone, a standard anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic drug [51] .

Antimicrobial activity

Citric acid extract of bark of D. melanoxylon have shown significant antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia More Details coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,  Salmonella More Details typhimurium and  Yersinia More Details pestis) and gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus). The plant has potential antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger [52] .

Antidiarrhoeal activity

The decoction of dried leaves of D. sisso possesses antidiarrhoeal activity. The ethanolic extract of the bark of D. lanceolaria have shown activity against castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea in albino mice [53] .

Antiulcerogenic activity

The lyophilized aqueous extract (LAE) of D. monetaria have shown a dose dependant inhibition of gastric lesions induced by indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligature and hypothermic- restraint stress on oral administration [54] .

Larvicidal and mosquito repellant activity

The oil extracted from wood scrapings of D. sisso has shown dose dependent larvicidal activity, growth inhibiter and repellant action against Anopheles stephensi, Ades aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus [55]

Antigiarrdial activity

The extracts and formononetin an isoflavone from the bark of D. frutescans have shown significant activity against Giardia intestinalis with an IC 50 value of 30ng/ml (approx. 0.1 μm) as compared to the value for metronidazole, the current drug of choice of 100 ng/ml (approx. 0.6 μm) [56] .

Antiplasmodial activity

The flavanoids isolated from air dried powdered heartwood of D. louvelli showed antiplasmodial activity with IC 50 values ranging from 5.8 to 8.7 um [57] .

Antifertility activity

Triterpenoid glycosides, DSS, isolated from the root of D.saxatilis have shown antifertility activity in female wistar rats at the dose rate of 200mg/kg body weigtt at the premating period, inhibiting the conception in 71.4% of the treated animals. Fertility index was 107.82 compared to 373.5 for control rats [58] .

Antioxidant activity

Butein isolated from D. odorifera have shown to inhibit the iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate in concentration dependant manner with an IC 50 value 3.3±0.4μm. It was as potent as α-tocopherol in reducing the stable free radical diphenyl-2-picarylhydryl (DPPH) with an IC 0.200 value 9.2±1.8 μm. It also inhibited the activity of xanthine oxidase with IC 50 value 5.9±0.3μm. Butein scavenged the peroxyl radical derived from 2,2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in aqueous phase. Butein have also shown to inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of human low­density lipoprotein (LDL) in a concentration dependent manner. Butein caused endothelium dependant relaxation of rat aorta, precontracted with phenylephrine [59] .

Cancer chemopreventive activity

Ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of the D. cultrate Grati and D. nigrescens Kurz were found to exhibit a significant antitumor promoting activity on TPA (12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13­acetase, EBV-EA (Epstein Barr virus early antigen) and TPA­induced EBV-EA activation [38] .

  Conclusion Top

The genus Dalbergia though known for its timber value also possesses significant medicinal properties. Most of the work carried out on the various species is on the extracts of the different parts. This review will help the future researchers to further explore the medicinal potential of the phytoconstituents of this genus.

  References Top

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47.J.R. Rao, M.A. Ahamed. Phytochemical Study of Dalbergia paniculata leaves Fitoterapia. 62(2): 187 (1992)  Back to cited text no. 47      
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58.C.N. Ucendu, B.F. Leek.Uterine Muscle Contractant from the root of Dalbergia sisso Fitoterapia. 70: 50-53 (1999)  Back to cited text no. 58      
59.Z.J. Cheng, S.C. Kuo, S. Chan, F.N. Kou, C.M. Teng. Antioxidant properties of butein isolated from Dalbergia odorifera. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1392: 291-299 (1998)  Back to cited text no. 59      


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